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January 17, 2013

Edgar V. Roberts' “Writing about Symbolism and Allegory: Keys to Extended Meaning"


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Class,

In the comment box below, . . .

. . . the note-taker/scribe from each group should retype the question your group discussed today in class and provide an answer with quotations from the text to support your answers. You MUST put the page number (or, paragraph number if there are no page numbers) in parentheses after any quotation used.

Enter your work on this text as prescribed in class. For example:

Remember: I have to "approve" all comments so you won't see it immediately after posting. After hitting submit, you should see a screen that confirms this.

We are beginning to use some concepts in our discussions that you may or may have had practice using before. I want to be sure that you have a clear understanding of the words we use in class (no more blank stares!) so be sure you are looking up words you don't feel you yet "own" (means, making it a part of your personal vocabulary) by utilizing your dictionaries to the fullest.

~Dr. Hobbs

_____________________________________

To see other English-Blog entries on the subject of Literature, please click HERE.

Posted by lhobbs at January 17, 2013 02:33 PM

Readers' Comments:

Layth Faraj, Ryan, Terrante
Dr. Hobbs
English 122
16 Jan 2013
According to Edgar V. Roberts, in the study of literature, what does the
word “character” mean?
“In literature, a character is a verbal representation of a human being. Through action, speech, description, and commentary, authors portray character who are worth caring about.” P.64

Posted by: Layth Faraj at January 18, 2013 09:55 AM

Habib Balde
2/6/13
Dr Hobbs
English 122 CA04

Question 1: We don’t usually equate the objectivity favored by mathematics with the subjectivity
found in literature. What is the simple mathematical formula that Roberts uses in
chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of “a symbol”? What easy to remember example
from real life does he provide as a model?


Answer: The author Edgar V Roberts has a great way of explaining symbolism. The words symbol and symbolism are derived from the Greek word meaning “throw together”. Roberts explains that “A symbol creates a direct equation and formula between a specific object, scene, character, or action and ideas, values, persons or way of life. In effect he found a form of formula to understand symbolism and why it is used which is to expand the meaning.

Posted by: Habib Balde at February 6, 2013 11:03 AM

Peter Mercadante
Dr.Hobbs
Eng. 122 CAO5 Academic Writting II
8 February 2013

Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2),
more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CULTURAL SYMBOL”? Why might the other sometimes-used name “universal symbol” be problematic?

Answer: The two main types of symbolism are cultural and contextual. These two are basically cultural symbols and usual they are universe, hence the second name, universal symbol. However sometime this might not be the case for some readers as they might be new to the culture or not understand the symbol such as biblical context or symbols to an Arabic student who doesn't understand these symbols. However most symbols are universal and can be picked up from the ocntext and outside information.

Posted by: Peter Mercadante at February 8, 2013 10:17 AM

Chris Lavie
Dr Hobbs
ENG 122 CA08
9 February 2013

QUESTION 16: Identify AND briefly summarize the title and subject of one fable, parable, or myth that you know that you have NOT read for this course AND has NOT been discussed by either Roberts or your instructor. You must correctly explain if it is a “parable,” “fable,” or “myth” (to get this correct, you must understand the difference between them).

ANSWER: I decided to talk about a fable called “The Tortoise and the Hare”. This fable was written by Aesop. This fable tells the story of a hare who wants to race against a slow tortoise. The hare, confident and quick left the tortoise behind him. Arrogant, the hare decided to take a nap before the finish line. But when he wakes up, he realized that the tortoise has already crossed the finish line. Like every fables, , this story has a moral. We can summarize it by the following sentence: “Nothing is gained by running if you do not start on time.” Edgar V. Robert also add that “often but not always, fables are about animals that possess human traits” (page 132). In “The Tortoise and the Hare”, we can recognize those human traits like the arrogance of the hare or the perseverance of the tortoise.

Posted by: Chris Lavie at February 9, 2013 02:06 PM

Christopher Burke
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122
Feb. 9 2013

Questions: Roberts explains that "Allegory" is like a symbol but is more sustained than symbolism. To help you remember he says that "allegory is to symbol as a motion picture is to.....

Answer: Still picture

Posted by: christopher burke at February 9, 2013 05:26 PM

Adrianna Johnson
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122: Symbolism and Allegory
10 February 2013

Question: In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “fable” is different than a
“parable.” Try to think of an example of each that is NOT provided by Roberts and
summarize them briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan”
and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).

Answer: The difference between a fable and parable is that a fable is generally related to animals that possess human traits, and often include morals, lessons learned from the characters. Parables are short narratives illustrating a religious concept, often relating back to Jesus. An example of a fable would be the book Animal Farm, and an example of a parable would be The Brick.

Posted by: Adrianna Johnon at February 10, 2013 01:03 PM

Jose Garcia
Dr. Hobbs
English 122 CA04 Academic Writing II
10th, February 2013
Question:

10. FILL-IN-THE-BLANK: According to Edgar Roberts, “symbolism and allegory are
literary devices that” _________________________ (129).

Answer:

10. According to Roberts, “Symbolism and allegory are literary devices that EXPAND MEANING.” (Roberts 1)

Posted by: Jose Garcia at February 10, 2013 05:14 PM

Octavia Robinson
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122
10 February 2013

Question:4. Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2),
more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL”?

Answer:Roberts state that the two main categories of symbols is cultural and contextual. Contextual Symbols are symbols that are created by the surrounding text in a work. Contextual meaning dependent on the surrounding parts of a passage. Roberts' uses the quote " A symbolic object from a story is the large standing clock in Poe's "The Masque of the Red Death," which only marks the passage of time but also ushers in the sinister and relentless force of death."(Roberts 130). We would use the context clues in the story to relate the clock to the relentless force of death. Without the surrounding context, we would not be able to make that assumption. The clock is a cultural symbol of time. We do not need explanation to understand why the clock is related to time. The author guesses that all the readers can make that connection.

Posted by: Octavia Robinson at February 10, 2013 09:36 PM

Rannell Smith
Dr.Hobbs
ENG 122 CA05
February 10, 2013

Question: In his attempt to explain what an “allegory” is, Roberts does something unusual. He
uses two other commonly-used literary devices for illustration. In one instance, he
uses simile (I discussed the difference between metaphor and simile in an earlier
lecture). Be prepared to read Roberts’s use of simile aloud. In another instance, he
uses an analogy (in the logical sense that they are used on the M.A.T. test, e.g.,
“Beethoven is to composing as Van Gogh is to painting.”) Be prepared to read
Roberts’s use of analogy aloud. In your own words, explain the difference between
“symbol” and “allegory.”

Answer: Firstly, to determine what a symbol is, you must judge the significance that the author gives to it. “If the element is prominent and also maintains a consistency of meaning, you can justify interpreting it as a symbol.” (Roberts 131) On the other hand, allegory is to a symbol as a motion picture is to a still picture. “In form, an allegory is a complete and self-sufficient narrative, but it also signifies another series of conditions to events.” (Roberts 131)

Posted by: Rannell Smith at February 10, 2013 10:17 PM

Sarah Hatcher
Dr. Hobbs
ENG-122
10 February, 2013

Question 8: How is a fable different from a parable?

Answer: A fable is a short story with a pointed moral, whereas a parable is a short narrative illustrating a religious concept. This ultimately means fables are more towards stories that have the right thing to do or teach you a lesson such as Aesop's Fables and parables have more of a religiously right thing to do, and have bible stories in them.

Posted by: Sarah Hatcher at February 10, 2013 11:57 PM

Alison Schucht
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA05
11 February 2013

Question: We don’t usually equate the objectivity favored by mathematics with the subjectivity found in literature. What is the simple mathematical formula that Roberts uses in chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of “a symbol”? What easy to remember example from real life does he provide as a model?

Answer: According to Roberts, "a symbol is a substitute for the element being signified." (Roberts, 129.) A symbol resembles a "direct equation between a specific object, scene, character, or action; and ideas, values, persons, or ways of life." (Roberts, 129.) The easy example Roberts provides us about symbolism is how a flag represents a nation.

Posted by: Alison Schucht at February 11, 2013 08:37 AM

Terrance Browne
Dr.Hobbs
ENG122
11,February 2013

Question:In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “fable” is different than a
“parable.” Try to think of an example of each that is NOT provided by Roberts and
summarize them briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan”
and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).

Answer: The difference between a fable and a parable is that a parable will always involve people in a moral problem and having to make a decision and than deal with the effects of their decision.Fables are short stories with animals or objects to teach a moral lessen to someone. Some examples of fables would be Disney movies such as "Toy Story or Finding Nemo". An example of Parable would be "The Boy Who Cried Wolf."

Posted by: Terrance Browne at February 11, 2013 08:53 AM

Vintoria Hopps
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 CA08
30 January 2013
Question: FILL-IN-THE-BLANK: According to Edgar Roberts, “symbolism and allegory are literary devices that” _________________________
Answer: Symbolism and allegory are literary devices that expand meaning.

Posted by: Vintoria at February 11, 2013 09:01 AM

Jordan Miller
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 CA08
11 Feb 2013

Question 06: In his attempt to explain what an “allegory” is, Roberts does something unusual. He uses two other commonly-used literary devices for illustration. In one instance, he uses simile (I discussed the difference between metaphor and simile in an earlier lecture). Be prepared to read Roberts’s use of simile aloud. In another instance, he uses an analogy (in the logical sense that they are used on the M.A.T. test, e.g., “Beethoven is to composing as Van Gogh is to painting.”) Be prepared to read Roberts’s use of analogy aloud. In your own words, explain the difference between “symbol” and “allegory.”
Answer: According to Roberts, “A symbol is a direct equation between a specific object, scene, character, or action; and ideas, values, persons, or a way of life (Roberts, 129),” and an allegory is, “like a symbol because it transfers and broadens meanings (Roberts, 131).” A symbol is something that stands out, something that the story may revolve around, a set of values maybe. And an allegory is that symbol but explained more: like a movie about freedom and choice, when the symbol is just freedom. The symbol sets the values and the allegory expands on it.

Posted by: jordan Miller at February 11, 2013 10:53 AM

Allison Knipe
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122
11 February 2013
Question: 2. Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CULTURAL SYMBOL”? Why might the other sometimes-used name “universal symbol” be problematic?
Answer: The two categories of symbol are cultural and contextual. Cultural symbol means a symbol in which only a certain culture can understand. This is why the term “universal symbol” that is associated with cultural symbol is sometimes problematic. Cultural is not always universal, some cultures may not understand others.

Posted by: Allison Knipe at February 11, 2013 10:58 AM

Alexia Chambers
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 CA04
February 8, 2013
14.CLARIFICATION: Roberts states that “closely related to symbolism and allegory [ . . . ] are three additional forms: fable, parable, and myth” (132-33). Explain the difference between TWO of them.
Fable- Short tale with a pointed moral
Parable- Short narrative illustrating a religious concept
Myth-A tale with social political religious or philosophical meaning

Posted by: Alexia Chambers at February 11, 2013 11:09 AM

Marie Ryan
Dr. Hobbs
Eng 122 CA 08
Feb 11, 2013

11) Identification and Explanation: In this chapter Robert says "there are two types of symbols" (129). a) Identify one and b) explain what it means.

A: One type of symbol identified by Roberts is a contextual symbol. These types of symbols aren't universal but rather specific to a particular work. In paragraph three, on page 130 Roberts says "Unlike cultural symbols, contextual symbols derive their meaning form the context and circumstances of individual works."

Posted by: Marie Ryan at February 11, 2013 11:34 AM

Ana DeMaio
Dr. Hobbs
Academic Writing 2 CA04 in Crawford Hall, Room #6
11 February 2013

Question: IDENTIFICATION & EXPLANATION: In this chapter, Roberts says “there are two types of symbols” (129). a.) Identify one and b.) Explain what it means.
Answer: According to Roberts one type of symbolism is cultural symbolism. This means that readers and writers use symbols that would relate to many because they have the same culture. “They embody ideas and emotions that writers and readers share as heirs of the same historical and cultural tradition”(Roberts p129). When a writer uses a cultural symbol they expect the reader to know what it is symbolizing. An example would be that, in American culture a rose it usually used to symbolized romance whereas in another part of the world it may have a completely different meaning to it.

Posted by: Ana DeMaio at February 11, 2013 11:46 AM

Anthony Jannetta
Dr.Hobbs
Eng 122 CA04
13 February 2013

Question: We don’t usually equate the objectivity favored by mathematics with the subjectivity found in literature. What is the simple mathematical formula that Roberts uses in chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of “a symbol”? What easy to remember example from real life does he provide as a model?

Answer: The simple mathematical formula that Roberts uses in chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of a symbol is: “a specific object, scene, character, or action” are substitutes to” ideas, values, persons, or ways of life” (Roberts, 129). As example of model in our real life, he gives the example of the flag which “stands for the ideals of nations.” (Roberts, 129)

Posted by: Anthony Jannetta at February 11, 2013 07:59 PM

Jade Lowe
Dr.Hobbs
Eng 122 CA08
12 February 2013

Question: CLARIFICATION: Roberts states that "closely related to symbolism and allegory are three additional forms--fable, parable, and myth"(132-133). Explain the difference between TWO of them.

Answer: Fable- An old, brief, and popular form. Fables often are about animals that possess human traits.(page 132).
Parable- A short, simple story with a moral or religious framework. Parables are most often associated with Jesus, who use them to embody religious insights and truths.(page 133)
Myth- A traditional story that embodies and group the religious, philosophical, and cultural values of the civilization in which it is composed. A myths central figures are heroes, gods, and demigods.(page 133)
The difference between a fable and a parable is that fables are often about animals that possess human traits and parables are often associated with Jesus.

Posted by: Jade Lowe at February 12, 2013 12:10 AM

Jazmine Dixon
Dr.Hobbs
English 122 CA04 “Writing about Symbolism and Allegory”
2 Feb 2013


Question: Why, according to Roberts, are “[a]llegories and the allegorical method [ . . . ] more than literary exercises”? In your own words, recall for the class several of the reasons he gives.


Answer: He gives reasons in this passage from the story; Allegories and the allegorical method are more than literary exercises. Without question, readers and listeners learn and memorize stories and tales more easily than moral lessons, and therefore allegory is a favorite method of teaching morality. In addition, thought and expression have not always been free and safe. The threat of censorship and the danger of political or economic reprisal have often cause authors to express their views indirectly in the form of allegory rather than to name names and write openly, thereby risking political prosecution, accusations of libel or even bodily harm (132).

Posted by: Jazmine Dixon at February 12, 2013 04:05 PM

Sade Loiseau
Dr.Hobbs
Eng 122
12 Feb 2013

Question 4: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2),
more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL”? How
are these self-contained symbols less problematic (yet, require a little more effort)
than cultural/universal symbols? Roberts gives several examples. In your own words,
explain the one he recalls from a text we read together as a class for this course.

Answer: The two main points of symbol is (1) a specific objeect, scene, character, or action (2) ideas, values, persons, or way of life (page 129). In other words, symbol is like a substitude for an object. Theres two tupe of symbols; Cultural and Contextual. Contextual Symbol derive their meaning from the context and circumstances of individual works (page 130). The example that he used was from the story Masque of the Red Death. They out the clock as an contextual symbol.

Posted by: Sade Loiseau at February 12, 2013 04:31 PM

Octavio Herrera
Dr. Hobbs
Academic Writing II
10 February 2013

Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CULTURAL SYMBOL”? Why might the other sometimes-used name “universal symbol” be problematic?

Answer: The two main types of symbols, cultural and contextual. Cultural symbols are generally recognized and therefore cultural. “They embody ideas and emotions that writers and readers share of the same historical and cultural tradition.” (Roberts 130). “Contextual symbols are only symbolic in individual works. They derive their meanings from the context and circumstances of individual works” (Roberts 130).

Posted by: Octavio Herrera at February 12, 2013 06:27 PM

Marquisa Turner
ENG 122-CA04 Academic Writing II
Dr. Hobbs
9 February 2013

Question: In your own words, recall to the class the myth of Sisyphus and explain how the story has been frequently interpreted, according to Edgar V. Roberts. What is another VERY common symbol used by writers and what has it often represented? (Hint: can be found in the text right after the discussion of Sisyphus)
Answer: The story of Sisyphus is that he tried to overcome death twice and that made the gods angry with him. His punishment was to roll a boulder up a very high hill and every time it made it to the top the boulder rolled back down the hill. This happened every time the boulder made it to the top and this went on forever. The story has been frequently interpreted as a symbol of human condition. In this quote Robert’s show how the story of Sisyphus is a symbol of human condition “Work must always be done over and over from day to day and from generation to generation, and the same problems confront humanity throughout all time” (130). Another common symbol used is water and it has represented life, optimism, love relationships that range from uncertainty to serenity.

Posted by: Marquisa Turner at February 12, 2013 07:27 PM

Marlie Gonzalez
Dr.Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II
12 Febuary 2013

Question: Define each of the following words: Allusion, dualism,and irony.

Allusion is an indirect reference to something or someone that calls the attention of somebody.dualism are two things that are divided into two opposing sides.Irony is when the opposite of what was expected from something or someone happens.

Posted by: marlie gonzalez at February 12, 2013 10:07 PM

Kathryn White
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 CA05
11 February, 2013

QUESTION:5. Roberts gives some advice on how to determine if “an object, action, or character” is
either symbolic or “not symbolic.” In your own words, explain that advice. Why should the reader of Thomas Hardy’s “The Three Strangers” know that the cup of mead has symbolic value? (To understand Roberts’ answer, be sure you can explain
the words “imposition,” “arbitrary,” “capricious,” and “punitive”). Using what you know about the definitions of cultural and contextual symbols, which of the two best fits/describes the cup of mead? Why?

Roberts states that in order to identify the symbols in literature, one must judge the importance that the author gives to the object. Roberts refers to the cup of meas from "The Three Strangers" as an example to show how the author made it clear that the cup was a symbol. Because the second person took more than their share of mead, it is a symbol "suggesting the imposition of law on people."(Roberts 131)

Posted by: Kathryn White at February 12, 2013 10:18 PM

Jennifer Evans
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 CA 08
12 February 2013

Question: 8. In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “fable” is different than a
“parable.” Try to think of an example of each that is NOT provided by Roberts and
summarize them briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan”
and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).

Answer: A fable is an old, brief, and popular form of a story. Where a parable is a short simple story with moral or religious view.
An example of a fable is "Animal Farm."
An example of a parable is "The Boy Who Cried Wolf."

Posted by: Jennifer Evans at February 12, 2013 11:27 PM

Brynn Laverdure
Dr. Hobbs
Eng 122 CA08
February 12, 2013

Question: Define each of the following words: “allusion,” “parallelism (in
literature),” “dualism,” and “irony”

Answer: An allusion, in terms of literature, is an implied or indirect reference. Roberts says "allegories often allude to other works from our cultural heritage, such as the Bible"(Roberts 133). A parallelism is repeated syntactical similarities introduced for rhetorical effect. Dualism is a theory that considers reality to consist of two irreducible elements or modes. Finally irony is the use of words to express something other than and especially the opposite of the literal meaning.

Posted by: Brynn Laverdure at February 12, 2013 11:48 PM

Jasmine Lowe
Dr. Hobbs
ENG-122 CA08
February 13, 2013
Question: In your own words, explain Roberts’s description of how a “myth” is different from both a “fable” and a “parable”. Try to think of an example of a myth that is not provided by Roberts and summarize it briefly to the class.
Answer: A myth is a traditional story that explains some sort of belief. A parable is a story used to explain a spiritual lesson. A fable is a sort story that has animals or other characters to teach a moral (right or wrong) lesson. (page 132)

Posted by: Jasmine Lowe at February 13, 2013 12:07 AM

Jacob Gates
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 CA02 Academic Writing II
12th of February 2013

Question: “Roberts gives some advice on how to determine if “an object, action, or character” is either symbolic or “not symbolic.” In your own words, explain that advice. Why should the reader of Thomas Hardy’s “The Three Strangers” know that the cup of mead has symbolic value? (To understand Roberts’ answer , be sure you can explain the words “imposition,” “arbitrary,” “capricious,” and “punitive”). Using what you know about the definitions of cultural and contextual symbols, which of the two best fits/describes the cup of mead? Why?

Answer: According to Roberts’ if the author does not put any particular focus on an object in the story, or that the object serves no major purpose in the story, then the object does not carry any greater symbolic meaning. The fact that the mead has some symbolic meaning can be important for determining the underlying themes in the story, such the punitive nature of the second stranger and how it relates to the social climate of the time. The Mead almost certainly is a contextual symbol, one that, because of how its portrayed in the story, give it its meaning.

Posted by: Jacob Gates at February 13, 2013 02:24 AM

Analisa Johnson
Dr.Hobbs
Eng 122 CA 08
13 Feb 2013

Question: : As you read to discover symbols in a literary text, what does Roberts recommend you do to “determine what is symbolic (and what is not symbolic)?

Answer: According to Roberts, " If a element is prominent and maintains a consistency of meaning, you can justify interpreting it as a symbol" (Roberts,131).

Posted by: Analisa Johnson at February 13, 2013 09:48 AM

Lauren Irish
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 CA04
13 February 2013

Question: 9. In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “myth” is different from both
a “fable” and a “parable.” Try to think of an example of a myth that is NOT provided
by Roberts and summarize it briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good
Samaritan” and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).

Answer: Fable is usually about animals that possess human traits. Often an old, brief and popular form. Parable is a short simple story that usually religious most often associated with Jesus. Myth is a traditional story. Expresses the idea of culture. Confides the religious, philosophical and cultural values. Usually of gods, and heroes. Some examples of myths are the Easter Bunny, Boogey Monster, Bigfoot and the tooth fairy.

Posted by: Lauren Irish at February 13, 2013 09:50 AM

Brynn Laverdure
Dr. Hobbs
Eng 122 CA08
February 12, 2013

Question: Define each of the following words: “allusion,” “parallelism (in
literature),” “dualism,” and “irony”

Answer: An allusion, in terms of literature, is an implied or indirect reference. Roberts says "allegories often allude to other works from our cultural heritage, such as the Bible"(Roberts 133). A parallelism is repeated syntactical similarities introduced for rhetorical effect. Dualism is a theory that considers reality to consist of two irreducible elements or modes. Finally irony is the use of words to express something other than and especially the opposite of the literal meaning.

Posted by: Brynn Laverdure at February 13, 2013 10:27 AM

Ti’rani Rye
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA08
4 October 2013
Question: As you read to discover symbols in a literary text, what does Roberts recommend you do to “determine what is symbolic (and what is not symbolic)? (131).
Answer: “Judge the importance that the author gives to you.” (Roberts, 131) Roberts states that how the author utilizes objects or an idealistic view to give a common thought throughout the story that can correlate to the primary message. It’s how the author gives it importance

Posted by: Ti'rani Rye at October 4, 2013 01:47 PM

Michael Ossolinski
Dr. Hobbs
Academic Writing II CA08
6 October 2013

Question: CLARIFICATION
Roberts states that "closely related to symbolism and allegory [......] are three additional forms=== fable, parable, and myth" (132-33.) Explain the difference between two of them

Answer:
FABLE- is a short, old, brief, and popular form that has a pointed moral or morals to it (p.5, paragraph 5, lines 3-4)
PARABLE- a short simple story that has a religious concept or moral to it (p.6, paragraph 2, lines 1-2)

Posted by: Michael Ossolinski at October 6, 2013 11:10 AM

Maryerie Rojas
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA 08
6 October 2013

Question 1: We don’t usually equate the objectivity favored by mathematics with the subjectivity found in literature. What is the simple mathematical formula that Roberts uses in chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of “a symbol”? What’s easy to remember example from real life does he provide as a model?

Answer: (a) Robert states that a symbol creates “a direct equation between 1. a specific object, scene, character or action; and 2. Ideas, values, persons, or ways of life (129).” Roberts uses the example of a flag. A flag represents the ideals and values of a country (Roberts 129).

Posted by: Maryerie Rojas at October 6, 2013 07:51 PM

Julieann Sauter
Dr. Hobbs
Eng 122 Academic Writing CA 08
6 October 2013

Question: Why, according to Roberts, are “[a]llegories and the allegorical method [ . . . ] more
than literary exercises”? In your own words, recall for the class several of the reasons
he gives.

Answer:
Allegories are more than literary exercises because people associate things in their own lives. Some examples Roberts gives of this is a bereaved mother associating boxes with death. A man who sees the North Star will be devoted to finding love. A pet could cause a widower to remember their loved one, and a vanishing light might cause for someone to realize that traditional values are being lost. These are the examples of allegories given by Roberts on page 129.

Posted by: Julieann Sauter at October 6, 2013 11:10 PM

Madison Owens
Dr. Hobbs
Eng 122 Academic Writing II CA08
6 October 13

Question #10: "FILL-IN-THE-BLANK: According to Edgar Roberts, "symbolism and allegory are literary devices that" ___________________________ (129)."

Answer: According to Edgar Roberts, "symbolism and allegory are literary devices that expand meaning" (129).

Posted by: Madison Owens at October 6, 2013 11:15 PM

Rebecca Liller
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA08
6 October 2013

Question: In this chapter, Roberts says “there are two types of symbols” (129). a.) Identify one and b.) Explain what it means.

Answer: One symbol in this chapter Robert’s mentions is cultural and contextual symbols. Cultural and contextual symbols means that the ideas and emotions that are found in a story share historical and cultural traditions. The writer, when using symbols, assumes that the reader knows what each symbol is supposed to represent. An example of this is water. When an author talks about water, he could use this to represent something holy, or even a form of love between two people. Water can also be an example of emotions such as pain and suffering being washed away form a character. Many of the cultural symbols varies, depending on which culture the author is talking about in their story to the reader.

Posted by: Rebecca Liller at October 7, 2013 12:42 AM

Tyiasha Bailey
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA08
7 October 2013

Question: An allegory is to a symbol as a motion picture is to a?

Answer: Still picture.

Posted by: Tyiasha Bailey at October 7, 2013 09:28 AM

Luis Martinez
Dr. Hobbs
Eng122 Academic Writing II
10/7/13

Q8- Fables and parables are both short stories which are crafted to convey a certain message. While a fable uses symbolism which occasionally requires a written "moral" (133) from the author, a parable uses broad cultural symbolism to help get its point across.

Posted by: Luis Martinez at October 7, 2013 11:08 AM

Emma De Rhodo
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA08
7 October 2013

Question #15: Define each of the following words: “allusion,” “parallelism(in literature),” “dualism,” and “irony.”

Answer: Allusions, as defined by Roberts in this chapter, are “works from our cultural heritage, such as the Bible, ancient history and literature, and works of the British and American traditions” that are brought up in a writing(Roberts 6). Parallelism, in literature, as Hobbs mentions, can be seen when there are plots in which every character who is a major character has a different story line, but a related one that comes together at the close of a story(Hobbs). Furthermore, Hobbs says that dualism is a device in literature which “divides something conceptually into two opposed or contrasted aspects(dichotomies)”(Hobbs). Hobbs also talks about irony; he says that irony’s function is usually to show what is varying from, and many times, the opposite of the literal meaning of a part of a story(Hobbs).

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*NOTE* The deadline for this particular assignment has now passed. Any comments listed below are *ONLY* for the reposting of comments that I specifically asked to be revised or are ones from non-student posters. Any 'student' posts below that missed the assignment deadline will not get credit for the assignment. ~ Dr. Hobbs

Posted by: Emma De Rhodo at October 7, 2013 01:13 PM

Sawyer Hand
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
19 February 2014

Question: Roberts gives some advice on how to determine if "an object, action, or character" is either symbolic or "not symbolic." in your own words, explain that advice. Why should the reader of Thomas Hardy's "The Three Strangers" know that the cup of mead has symbolic value? Using what you know about the definitions of cultural and contextual symbols, which of the two best fits/ describes the cup of mead? Why?

Answer: Roberts gives advice on how someone can determine if something is symbolic or not in a story. This is explained as, "in determining whether an object, action, or character is a symbol, you need to judge the importance that the author gives to it. If the element is prominent and also maintains a consistency of meaning, you can justify interpreting it as a symbol" (Roberts 131). An example of this for a reader is the mead in "The Three Strangers". Roberts explains why in lines such as, "the mead given by the Fennels to their guests is ostensibly nothing more than a celebratory drink. But because the threatening and obnoxious second stranger consumes much more than his share, the mead takes on symbolic values in the story, suggesting that the imposition of law on people like the Fennels is arbitrary and capricious, and also punitive. This would be a contextual symbol because it is only symbolic in this authors piece of work. A cup of mead in most other stories wouldn't have any special meaning

Posted by: sawyer hand at February 19, 2014 12:43 AM

Maxx Howarth
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG122 Academic Writing II CA12
19 February 2014

QUESTION #8:
In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a "fable" is different than a "parable." Try to think of an example of each that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize them briefly to the class (as your classmate did for "The Good Samaritan" and I did for "Samson and Delilah" in a previous meeting).

ANSWER:
According to Roberts, in summary, a fable is a short tale with a pointed moral, whilst a parable is a short narrative illustrating a religious concept (Roberts 132-133). An example of a fable would be the story of "Bambi," and an example of a parable would be "The Prodigal Son."

Posted by: Maxx Howarth at February 19, 2014 11:06 AM

Traneisha Cunningham
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
19 February 2014

QUESTION #12:
As you read to discover symbols in a literary text, what does Roberts recommend you do to "determine what is symbolic (and what is not symbolic)? (131).

ANSWER:
In determining what is symbolic, you have to judge the importance the author gives to it. If the element is prominent and maintains a consistency of meaning , you can then determine that it is symbolic (131). If the element is unknown and has irregularity in the meaning then you can determine the element is not symbolic.

Posted by: Traneisha Cunningham at February 19, 2014 11:34 AM

Bianca T. Smith
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
19 Feb. 2014

Question #1: We don't usually equate the objectivity favored by mathematics with the subjectivity found in literature. What is the simple mathematical formula that Roberts uses in chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of "a symbol"? What easy to remember example from real life does he provide as a model?

Answer:"The words symbol and symbolism derived from a Greek word meaning to throw together'(syn, "together",and ballein, "to throw")"(Roberts 2). He uses an example such as: "the flag stands for the ideals of the nation."


Posted by: Bianca T. Smith at February 19, 2014 06:25 PM

James Jessop
Dr. B. Lee. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II
20th February 2014

Question #3
In your own words, recall to the class the myth of Sisyphus and explain how the story has been frequently interpreted, according to Edgar V. Roberts. What is another VERY common symbol used by writers and what has it often represented? (Hint: can be found in the text right after the discussion of Sisyphus)

Answer:
The myth of Sisyphus is “an ancient Greek myth” (Roberts 3) in which a character named Sisyphus is summoned by the gods of the underworld to forever roll a large boulder up a very tall hill as punishment for twice trying to overcome death. The boulder constantly rolls all the way back down as Sisyphus gets up close to the top of the hill. It is often interpreted as a symbol of how “in spite of constant struggle, a person rarely gets anything done” (Roberts 3), meaning that we should always keep going through our struggles, as it makes our lives meaningful. Another common symbol used by writers is the use of water. It can be used in many ways and can set up many different types of scenes. “Ordinary water, because we cannot live without it, is recognized as a symbol of life” (Roberts 3) and is often used by writers in that way. But water can also be used to symbolize things such as optimism when described in ways such as a “spouting fountain” (Roberts 3), or a stagnant pol could symbolize pollution or a poor environment.

Posted by: James Jessop at February 20, 2014 07:31 PM

Makenzie Holler
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
20 February 2014

Question #2: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression "cultural symbol"? Why might the other sometimes-used name "universal symbol" be problematic?

Answer: The two main categories of symbol are cultural and contextual. Roberts says that a "cultural symbol" is "where the writer assumed that readers know what the symbols represent" (Roberts 130). When referring to the "universal symbol" the symbol could represent various different things. In one culture one thing could mean a bad thing while in another culture, the same word could mean a good thing.

Posted by: Makenzie Holler at February 20, 2014 10:37 PM

Sarah A Ellis
Dr. B Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
20 February 2014

Question 7:
Why, according to Roberts, are “[a]llegories and the allegorical method […] more than literary exercises?” In your own words, recall for the class several of the reasons he gives.

Answer:
The reader grasps and remembers the story and its morals (Roberts 131). Writers are allowed freedom of expression without being at risk for their work (Roberts 132). The writer also tries to portray the world in a different perspective and allows the reader to comprehend reality differently (Roberts 132).

Posted by: Sarah Ellis at February 20, 2014 11:11 PM

Berlin Waters
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
21 February 2014

Question #5:
Roberts gives some advice on how to determine if “an object, action, or character” is either symbolic or “not symbolic.” In your own words, explain that advice. Why should the reader of Thomas Hardy’s “The Three Strangers” know that the cup of mead has symbolic value? (To understand Roberts’ answer, be sure you can explain the words “imposition,” “arbitrary,” “capricious,” and “punitive”). Using what you know about the definitions of cultural and contextual symbols, which of the two best fits/describes the cup of mead? Why?

Answer:
Roberts explains in order for an "action, object, or character" to be considered symbolic the author probably makes this item well known throughout the story. Its meaning also stays the same each time it is mentioned. The cup of mead in "The Three Strangers" is symbolic because throughout the story each stranger is mentioned drinking it and it reappears multiple times. The amount of mead each guest drinks also is a representation about the specific characters personality.

In "The Three Strangers" the cup of mead is considered a contextual symbol because only in this story is this cup representing something more than just a celebratory drink. Anywhere else, this cup of mead may not have any specific meaning or significance suggestion that it is not a universal or "cultural" symbol.

Posted by: Berlin Waters at February 21, 2014 12:51 AM

Shelby Marrero
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG Academic Writing II CA12
21 Feb. 2014

Question 15:
Define each of the following words: “allusion,” “parallelism (in literature),” “dualism,” and “irony”

Answer:
An allusion can be an implied reference to mention something else. Dualism can be when there is something divided into two parts. Irony is when words are used to create an opposite meaning. Lastly, parallelism in literature is when there is a balance between two sentences.

Posted by: Shelby Marrero at February 21, 2014 09:18 AM


Sergio Velazquez
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
Eng122 - ACADEMIC WRITING II CA12
Feb/20/2014


Question # 4 Roberts states that “closely related to symbolism and allegory (...)are three additional forms=fable, parable, and myth” 132-33.explain the difference between TWO of them.

The difference between a fable and a parable?The difference between a fable and a moral, is the theme. The theme of a fable is its moral and the theme of a parable is its teaching. In addition to the previous a parable is affiliated with Christian Ideals, Jesus used parables to teach for example”the man who built the house on the sand” (edger) In juxtaposition animals are used in fables, such as the three little pigs.

Posted by: Sergio Velazquez at February 21, 2014 09:57 AM

Jeffrey Wingfield James Jessop
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
21 February 2014
We don’t usually equate the objectivity favored by mathematics with the subjectivity
found in literature. What is the simple mathematical formula that Roberts uses in
chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of “a symbol”? What easy to remember example
from real life does he provide as a model?

Roberts describes the meaning of a symbol as a “substitute” for a larger meaning. He writes, “A symbol creates a direct equation between a specific object, scene, character, or action; and ideas, values, persons, or ways of life.” (Roberts 2) He uses the example of a flag as a symbol of a nation. The flag “substitutes” for spelling out every detail of the nation.

Posted by: Jeffrey Wingfield James Jessop at February 21, 2014 10:56 AM

Hubert Reuter
Dr .B. Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
21 February 2014

Question:
IDENTIFICATION & EXPLANATION: In this chapter, Roberts says “there are two
types of symbols” (129). a.) Identify one and b.) explain what it means.

Answer:
In the reading on symbolism and allegory Roberts says, that there are two types of symbols these are cultural and contextual (Roberts 2). The contextual symbols are only symbolic in an individual work that an author creates. For example, the white whale in Melville's "Moby Dick" takes on multiple symbolic meanings in the work, but these meanings do not automatically carry over into other stories about whales. The meanings suggested by Melville's whale are specific to that text.

Posted by: Hubert Reuter at February 21, 2014 01:11 PM

Sarah A Ellis and Maxx Howarth
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
21 February 2014

Question 4:
Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean by the expression “CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL”? How are these self-contained symbols less problematic (yet, require a little more effort) than cultural/universal symbols? Roberts gives several examples. In your own words, explain the one he recalls from a text we read together as a class for this course.

Answer:
There are two main categories of symbols: cultural and contextual. Contextual symbol “derive[s] their meanings from the context and circumstances of individual works” (Roberts 130). These symbols are less problematic because “when using cultural symbols, a writer assumes that readers know what the symbols represent” (Roberts 130). A symbol in one culture could have a completely different meaning from another. Roberts used The Masque of the Red Death as an example to show the motion of time and death creeping up on the character when they less except it.

Posted by: Sarah Ellis at February 21, 2014 08:30 PM

Shelby Marrero & Bianca Smith
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG Academic Writing II CA12
24 Feb. 2014

Question 2:
Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CULTURAL SYMBOL”? Why might the other sometimes-used name “universal symbol” be problematic?

Answer:
"Universal Symbol can be problematic because some meaning in America may have a different meaning in another country.(Roberts 3) For example the color red, white, and blue does not only stand for America because other countries use red, white, and blue for the colors of their flags.

Posted by: Shelby Marrero & Bianca Smith at February 24, 2014 09:52 AM

Elizabeth Brown
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II
6 October 2014
Question #8:
In your own words, explain Robert’s description of how a “fable” is different from a “parable.” Try to think of an example of each that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize them briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan” and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).
Answer:
The difference between a fable and parable is that a fable relates generally to animals that possess human traits, and often include morals, lessons learned from the characters. Parables are short narratives illustrating a religious concept, often relating back to Jesus. An example of a fable would be the book Animal Farm, and an example of a parable would be The Brick.

Posted by: Elizabeth Brown at October 6, 2014 01:38 PM

Danielle Kluender
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 CA07 Academic Writing II
5 October 2014

Question #2:
Robert says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CULTURAL SYMBOL”? Why might the other sometimes-used name “universal symbol” be problematic?

Answer:
The two main categories of symbol are (1) a specific object, scene, character, or action; and (2) ideas, values, persons, or ways of life. There are two types of symbols, which are cultural and contextual. “When using cultural symbols, a writer assumes that readers know what the symbols represent.” (Roberts 130). Cultural symbols have different meanings in different cultures. Universal says that some symbols have universal meaning.

Posted by: Danielle Kluender at October 6, 2014 01:41 PM

Alyssa Davis
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA07
5 October 2014

Question #7:
Why, according to Roberts, are “allegories and the allegorical method […] more than literary exercises”? In your own words, recall for the class several of the reasons he gives.

Answer :
Allegories and the allegorical method is more than literary exercises because “readers and listeners learn and memorize stories and tales more easily than moral lessons, and therefore allegory is a favorite method of teaching morality,” (Roberts 131). Roberts states because of the danger of political reprisal, authors tend to express themselves indirectly. They do this by using allegory and not naming any names and writing freely. Roberts also states that allegory has a double meaning; by having a double meaning allegories are not only in a literary form, it is also in reality.

Posted by: Alyssa Davis at October 6, 2014 01:42 PM


Elizabeth Brown, Danielle Kluender, Alyssa Davis
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II
6 October 2014
Question #9:
In your own words, explain Robert’s description of how a “myth” is different from both a “fable” and a “parable.” Try to think of an example of a myth that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize it briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan” and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).
Answer:
The difference between a fable and parable is that a fable relates generally to animals that possess human traits, and often include morals, lessons learned from the characters. Parables are short narratives illustrating a religious concept, often relating back to Jesus. A myth is a traditional story that exemplifies cultural values and traditions that come from where the story originated, normally involving gods and goddess, or Greek mythology. Most are fictional, but some stem from historical happenings.

Posted by: Elizabeth Brown, Alyssa Davis, Danielle Kluender at October 6, 2014 01:50 PM

Samantha Witte
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA07
October 4, 2014


QUESTION #5:
Explain Roberts’ advice when finding symbolism. Why should the reader of Thosmas Hardy’s “The Three Strangers” know that the cup of mead has a symbolic meaning? Is this a conceptual or contextual symbol?

ANSWER:
To find symbolism, the reader must pay attention to certain objects, situations, or characters that continue to come up during certain circumstances. If these continue to represent the same meanings over and over, they are most likely symbols. The author will keep using it, making it “prominent and also maintains a consistency of meaning, you can justify interpreting it as a symbol” (Roberts 131). The reader should know that the cup of mead is symbolic because the author emphasized and explained the passing of it around to each character, describing what each of the guests did. The fact that the one stranger took too much showed his disrespect as a person and reflected how badly punishment by the law is. He was desperate to take what he could get, and that stranger was the one running from the law. This symbol is contextual because a cup of mead does not always represent the poor treatment of the law upon citizens. It is a symbol that “derives its meaning from context and circumstances of individual works” (Roberts 130).

Posted by: Samantha Witte at October 6, 2014 01:51 PM

Mickael Dodard
Dr. Hobbs
Academic Writing II Ca07
6 October 2014

Question #9.
In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “myth” is different from both a “fable” and a “parable.” Try to think of an example of a myth that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize it briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan” and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).

Answer
From my own opinion, a myth is different from both a “fable” and a “parable” because a myth is something that was always thought to be true but never proven to be true. A fable is a story with animals as character and a parable is a story that illustrates spiritual moral lesson.

Posted by: Mickael Dodard at October 6, 2014 01:55 PM

Stephanie Vera, Shyra Bryant
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs, M.L.A., Ph. D.
ENG. 122 Academic Writing II CA07
October 6, 2014

Question 5:
Roberts gives some advice on how to determine if “an object, action, or character” is
either symbolic or “not symbolic.” In your own words, explain that advice. Why
should the reader of Thomas Hardy’s “The Three Strangers” know that the cup of
mead has symbolic value? (To understand Roberts’ answer, be sure you can explain
the words “imposition,” “arbitrary,” “capricious,” and “punitive”). Using what you
know about the definitions of cultural and contextual symbols, which of the two best
fits/describes the cup of mead? Why?
Answer:
Contextual symbols derive their meaning from the context and circumstances of individual works. Cultural symbols embody ideas and emotions that writers and readers share as heirs of the same of the same historical and cultural tradition. Cup of Mead fits and describes Cultural symbol because it represents something and embodies an idea.

Posted by: Stephanie Vera, Shyra Bryant at October 6, 2014 02:09 PM

Mickael Dodard & Gianna Anderson
Dr. Hobbs
Academic Writing II Ca07
6 October 2014

Question # 7

Why, according to Roberts, are “(a)llegories and the allegorical method (…) more than literary exercises”? In your own words, recall for the class several of reasons he gave

Answer:
According to Robert, “allegories and the allegorical method are more than literary exercises. Readers and listeners learn and memorize stories and tales more easily than moral lessons, and therefore allegory is a favorite method teaching morality. ” He means that people are more interesting in reading stories and tales instead of learning about moral lessons because stories and tales are more pleasant to read because of all the details and suspense. Moral lessons tell life lesson which are real important but not always pleasant to read

Posted by: Mickael Dodard at October 6, 2014 02:13 PM

Rashard Knowles
Zach Gary
Dr. B Lee. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA07
6 October, 2014
Question:
8. In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “fable” is different than a
“parable.” Try to think of an example of each that is NOT provided by Roberts and
summarize them briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan”
and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).

Answer:
A fable is old and brief and are mostly about animals that possess Human traits.
A parable is a short simple story that’s associated with Jesus and are used to embody unique religious incites and truths.
Scripture: Luke 8:4-15
An example of a parable is the Sower and the Seeds. Seeds that fell on the pathways were walked on and eaten by birds, those that fell on rocks grew a bit and withered away, those that fell in the thorny bushes grew and were choked by the thorny bushes, and those that fell on good soil grew and flourished.
An example of a fable is: The Ants and the Grasshopper - In this fable, the ants saved food for the winter and the grasshopper did not. The moral is “It is best to prepare for the days of necessity.

Posted by: Rashard Knowles at October 6, 2014 02:18 PM

Trejon Baynham, John Crane
Dr. Burgsbee Lee Hobbs
ENG. 122 CA 07
6 October 2014


QUESTION:
In your own words, explain the difference between “symbol” and “allegory.”

ANSWER:
Symbols and allegories are both used to expand meaning. However, according to Roberts, “a symbol creates direct equation between a specific object, scene, action, idea, or way of life, “he further explains, “it is a substitute for the elements being signified” (Roberts 2). Whereas an allegory is a “complete and self-sufficient narrative” (Roberts 131).

Posted by: Trejon Baynham, John Crane at October 6, 2014 07:33 PM

Samantha Witte Justine Gonzalez
Dr.Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA07
6 October 2014

Question #4:
Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol.(1) What are they and (2) more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL”? How are these self-contained symbols less problematic than cultural/universal symbols?

Answer:
The two types of main categories of symbols are contextual and cultural. Contextual symbols are the ones that find the meaning within the text. “contextual symbols derive their meanings from the context and circumstances of individual works,” (Roberts 130). Specific symbols are meanings for specific works, one symbol will not be the same symbol for every work. Contextual is less problematic then cultural because its meaning is explained within the text. The clock from The Masque of The Red Death represents death coming, which is an example of contextual symbol.

Posted by: Justine Gonzalez at October 8, 2014 01:33 PM

Selena Hammie
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA12
20 February 2015

“Writing About Symbolism and Allegory”

Question #7: Why, according to Roberts are [a[llegories and the allegorical method […] more than literary exercises? In your own words, recall for the class several of the reasons he gives.

Roberts thinks allegories and the allegorical method are more than literary exercises because “readers and listeners learn and memorize stories and tales more easily than moral stories.” (Roberts page 131) That is because it goes beyond the meaning, allegories are similar to symbols but it has more meaning. For instance, a picture can say a thousand words but a video tells a story beyond what they are trying to show you with just the video alone. Readers grasp more when they can picture something better than just reading a bunch of words that have no meaning. By using allegory they can get a picture in their minds to tell them more than what it actually says, it allows the readers to broaden their thinking and be open-minded to what they read.

Posted by: Selena Hammie at February 20, 2015 03:58 PM

Mallory Delay
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
22 February 2015

Question 3: In your own words, recall to the class the myth of Sisyphus and explain how the story has been frequently interpreted, according to Edgar V. Roberts. What is another VERY common symbol used by writers and what has it often represented?

Answer: The story of Sisyphus often interpreted as the human condition. According to Roberts, the myth says that "in spite of constant struggle, a person rarely if ever completes anything." (Robert 130) Another very common symbol used by writers is water. It represents as a symbol of life. All living creatures depend on water; writers use it as a sign of rebirth, baptism, optimism. Roberts even mentions how "water is also a universal symbol of sexuality." (Robert 130) Depending on the description of the water, such a calm lake or a violent storm, it could mean uncertain or peaceful relationships.

Posted by: Mallory Delay at February 22, 2015 01:14 PM

Charis Lavoie
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
23 February 2015

Question 2: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CULTURAL SYMBOL”? Why might the other sometimes-used name “universal symbol” be problematic?
Answer: Cultural symbolism is symbols that are generally recognized; they come from our cultural and historical heritage. When one says universal symbolism, they expect anyone who might come across it to understand the symbolism. This could be problematic because certain parts of our individual culture might not be evident in another’s, also a story written in the 1600s could have symbols that someone from today’s time might not understand.

Posted by: Charis Lavoie at February 22, 2015 01:16 PM

Kaitlin Murphy
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
22 February 2015

Question: We don’t usually equate the objectivity favored by mathematics with the subjectivity found in literature. What is the simple mathematical formula that Roberts uses in chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of “a symbol”? What easy to remember example from real life does he provide as a model?

Answer: The simple mathematical formula that Roberts teaches us in “Writing about Symbolism and Allegory-Keys to Extended Meaning” to break down the meaning of “a symbol” is, “(1) a specific object, scene, character, or action; and (2) ideas, values, persons, or ways of life” (Roberts 129). He uses an example to remind us what “a symbol” means. He uses the flag as an example that stands for the ideals of the nation. (Roberts 129).

Posted by: Kaitlin Murphy at February 22, 2015 03:01 PM

Emily Buckley
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
22 February 2015

Question: In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “fable” is different than a “parable.” Try to think of an example of each that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize them briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan” and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).

Answer: A “fable” is a story that has an underlying lesson for the reader to learn such as the story of “The Emperor’s New Clothes.” A parable is similar to a fable by which the story has a lesson for the reader, but the lesson to learn is more of a religious teaching. An example of a parable is “The Prodigal Son.”

Posted by: Emily Buckley at February 22, 2015 06:24 PM

Diego Garcia and Mallory Delay
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
20 February 2015

Question: In your own words, recall to the class the myth of Sisyphus and explain how the story has been frequently interpreted, according to Edgar V. Roberts. What is another VERY common symbol used by writers and what has it often represented? (Hint: can be found in the text right after the discussion of Sisyphus)

Answer: Another very common symbol used by writers, according to Roberts, is ordinary water. It represents life since no creature can live without water. In the text, Roberts says, “it has this meaning in the ceremony of baptism, and it conveys this meaning and dimension in a variety of literary contexts.” (Roberts 3).

Posted by: Diego Garcia at February 22, 2015 07:48 PM

Amanda Cannon
Dr. Hobbs
ENC 122 Academic Writing II CA12
23 February 2015

Writing about Symbolism and Allegory

Question #9: In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “myth” is different from both a “fable” and a “parable.” Try to think of an example of a myth that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize it briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan” and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).

Answer: According to Roberts, a fable is a short tale with a pointed moral, often about animals with human traits (Roberts 132). A parable is a short story with a moral or religious concept, “often associated with Jesus” (Roberts 133). A myth is a story that “embodies and confides the religious, philosophical, and cultural values” from its origins (Roberts 133). A myth differs from a fable and a parable because they are based on historical truths.

Posted by: Amanda Cannon at February 22, 2015 09:26 PM

Jorge Braham and Vallinique

Dr. Hobbs

Academic Writing II CA12

22 February 2015

Writing about Symbolism and Allegory

Question Roberts gives some advice on how to determine if “an object, action, or character” is either symbolic or “not symbolic.” In your own words, explain that advice. Why should the reader of Thomas Hardy’s “The Three Strangers” know that the cup of mead has symbolic value? (To understand Roberts’ answer, be sure you can explain the words “imposition,” “arbitrary,” “capricious,” and “punitive”). Using what you know about the definitions of cultural and contextual symbols, which of the two best fits/describes the cup of mead? Why?

Answer:

If you are trying to determine whether a term is symbolic or not you need to tell whether it's important to you or not. Example in Three Strangers, the mead given by the Fennels to their guest is ostensibly nothing more than celebratory drink nothing more. Also, the terms to know are Imposition, that means an action or process of something being imposed. For arbitrary is usually of random decision never planned and for Capricious and punitive. Capricious is sudden behavior and punitive is inflicting or trying to act punishment toward someone else.

Posted by: jorge Braham at February 22, 2015 11:29 PM

Kathleen Sholl
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA12
22 February 15

Symbolism and Allegory Discussion Question

Question: Robert says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean by the expression “CULTURAL SYMBOL”? Why might the other sometimes-used name “universal symbol” be problematic?

Answer: The two main categories of symbol are cultural and contextual. Cultural symbols “embody ideas and emotions that writers share as heirs of the same historical and cultural tradition” (Roberts 3). When using these, writers usually assume that the readers know what they are. An example would be that water is a symbol for sexuality. Furthermore, contextual symbols “derive their meanings from the context and circumstances of individual works” (Roberts 3). An example of a contextual symbol would be Poe’s clock in, “The Masque of the Red Death.” A cultural symbol means that it is generally recognized easily by the public. The other name, “universal symbol” might be problematic because “objects and descriptions that are not universal symbols can be symbols only if they are made so within individual works” (Roberts 3).

Posted by: Kathleen Sholl at February 22, 2015 11:36 PM

Rachel Addington
Dr. Hobbs
ENG122 Academic Writing II CA12
22 February 2015

Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL”? How are these self-contained symbols less problematic (yet, require a little more effort) than cultural/universal symbols? Roberts gives several examples. In your own words, explain the one he recalls from a text we read together as a class for this course.
Answer: The two main categories of symbol are cultural and contextual. The contextual symbol means the symbolism comes out of the circumstances in the individual work themselves. In Poe’s “Masque of the Red Death” there was a clock that was symbolic of time that was passing by and also a way to bring in the evil and numerous deaths. “A symbolic object from a story is the large standing clock in Poe’s “Masques of the Red Death,” which not only marks the passage of time but also ushers in the sinister and relentless force of death.” (Pg. 130)

Posted by: Rachel Addington at February 22, 2015 11:39 PM

Vallinique Martin
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
22 February 2015

Question: In your words, explain the difference between “symbol” and “allegory.”

Answer: “A symbol creates a direct equation between a specific object, scene, character, or action and ideas, values, persons, or way of life.” (Roberts 2) “An allegory is like a symbol because it transfers and broadens meaning.” (Roberts 4) The major difference between the two is that allegory is more specific than symbolism; symbolism is vaguer. In symbolism Robert explains the difference when he states “allegory is to symbolism what a motion picture is to a still picture.” (Roberts 4) An allegory expresses different ideas to get a point across, but a symbol represents an idea that can have many different meanings throughout a narrative. Symbolism is used to convey one specific meaning of an object or person. For example, “the black bird represents death.” An allegory is to convey a message. For example, in Guy de Maupassant’s “The Necklace,” the message would be that having arrogance and pride could lead to a life of downfall and troubles.

Posted by: Vallinique Martin at February 23, 2015 12:40 AM

Rously Paul
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA12
23 February 2015

Question:Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL”? How are these self-contained symbols less problematic (yet, require a little more effort) than cultural/universal symbols? Roberts gives several examples. In your own words, explain the one he recalls from a text we read together as a class for this course.

Answer:
Roberts names two categories of symbols one being a cultural symbol which”… embodies ideas and emotions that writers and readers share as heirs of the same historical and cultural tradition.” (Page 3 Paragraph 1) Another type of symbol Roberts’ lists is contextual symbols, which “… derive their meanings from the context and circumstances of individual works.” (Page 3 Paragraph 2) Roberts continues and believes contextual symbols to be less problematic although to find their meaning requires more effort an example Roberts uses is in the Masque of the red death a symbolic object is the clock, which Roberts says, “not only marks the passage of time but also ushers in the sinister and relentless force of death.” (Page 3 Paragraph 3)

Posted by: Rously Paul at February 23, 2015 10:17 AM

Amber Dunlap
Dr. Hobbs
ENG. 122 Academic Writing CA 12
23 February 2015

Question 7:
Why according to Roberts are allegories and the allegorical method more than literary exercises?
Answer:
Because an allegorical method is narrative form in which the characters are representative of some larger humanistic trait They also try to convey some larger lesson or meaning to life.

Posted by: Amber Dunlap at February 23, 2015 11:20 AM

Kathleen Sholl and Amber Dunlap
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA12
23 February 15

“An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” Group Discussion Question

Question: Find a symbol in “An Occurrence on Owl Creek Bridge.”

Answer: In “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge,” the symbol in this short story is driftwood. The driftwood represents Farquhar’s unreachable freedom as he stares down at the water below him, preparing for his demise. “A piece of dancing driftwood caught his attention and his eyes followed it down the current. How slowly it appeared to move. What a sluggish stream” (Bierce 4). Farquhar’s thoughts were paused as he stared at the driftwood. The story states, “the piece of drift-all had distracted him (Bierce 4). The driftwood floats past him, and Farquhar ultimately kisses his existence goodbye. It
appears at the beginning of the short story as well as the end. Bierce uses exposition permanently to engrave the symbol of driftwood in the reader’s minds.

Posted by: Kathleen Sholl and Amber Dunlap at February 23, 2015 11:21 AM

Kaitlin Murphy and Victoria Markou
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
23 February 2015

Question: What are the symbols in Trifles?

Answer: The symbols in the short story, Trifles is the cage, which represents how Ms. Wright felt oppressed because of her husband (Glaspel 6). The bird is a symbol of Mrs. Wright’s spirit (Glaspel 8). The rope shows how Minnie’s “male” power. In rebellion, she murders “like a man” (Glaspel 2). The stove, cold house, and broken jars representing the fire dying out in their marriage with the death of Mr. Wright (Glaspel 2). The cracked jars with one remaining represent the last shred of hope from the two women have for Mrs. Wright (Glaspel 3). There are many symbols that we found in this story that represent many meanings in the story. Some allegories we found in Trifles was the men’s comments made towards women, such as “knot it or tie it,” it represents they are sexist towards women.

Posted by: Kaitlin Murphy and Victoria Markou at February 23, 2015 12:40 PM

Selena Hammie and Rachel Addington
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA12
23 February 2015

"Writing about Symbolism and Allegory"

Question: What are some symbols used in "The Necklace?"

In the short story “The Necklace”, the necklace was used as a symbol of wealth because it looks shiny but ends up being fake. It represents Mathilde’s desire of wealth and finding out the necklace is a fake it displays how her dream will never happen. It was not until the end of the story when she runs in Mrs. Forrestier and she tell her, ”Oh my poor Mathilde! But mine was only costume jewelry. At most it was only worth five hundred francs!...” (Maupassant line 125-126)

Posted by: Selena Hammie at February 23, 2015 12:49 PM

Mallory Delay and Diego Garcia
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA 12
23 February 2015

Question: What are the symbols used in the story "The Three Strangers"?

Answer: The primary symbol in the story "The Three Strangers" is the mead or the drink that is presented at the party. The first stranger refuses the drink while the second takes a generous amount, drinking "on, and on, and on- till a curious blueness overspread the countenance of the shepherd's wife." (Hardy 10) The third stranger never stays long enough to be offered any. The mead represents the truth. The second stranger reveals who he is and what he is doing by singing "My trade is a sight to see; For my customers I tie, and take them up on high, And waft 'em' to a far countree." (Hardy 13) It is presented throughout the story; the mead is only given in small cups to the party goers, a symbol of a small amount of truth. The two other strangers never drink, hiding or lying who they are.

Posted by: Mallory Delay at February 23, 2015 01:52 PM

Vallinique Martin and Jorge Braham
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
23 February 2015

Question: What is the symbol in “The Storm”?

Answer: The storm is obviously the symbol in the narrative. The storm symbolizes two things. In the natural world, we view a storm as a negative because it can harm people and property, but in the story, the storm brought Calixta and Alcee together. The storm pushed the two together, giving them the time and space to get physical before the outside world returned to normal. The storm also symbolized the affair between the two in bad connotation, because Calixta was married. So just like the storm, the affair only lasted for a short period but it will also have a bad effect on others’ lives.

Posted by: Vallinique Martin at February 23, 2015 10:44 PM

Amanda Cannon and Alison Colon
Dr. Hobbs
ENC 122 Academic Writing II CA12
25 February 2015

Writing about Symbolism and Allegory
Question: What are some symbols used in The Chrysanthemums?
Answer: As Robert explains in chapter eight, there are two types of symbolism; cultural and contextual. An example of cultural symbolism, in the Chrysanthemums, is the pot on the side of the road. The man was so eager to fix Elisa’s pots. When she gave him a pot with soil and a flower, he threw the pot on the side of the road. Contextual symbolism would be the flower itself.

Posted by: Amanda Cannon at February 24, 2015 09:03 PM

Emma Riemer
Dr.Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing 2
25 February 2015


Allegory and symbolism Homework

Question 9: In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “myth” is different from both a “fable” and a “parable.” Try to think of an example of a myth that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize it briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan” and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).


Answer:
The difference between myths, fables, and parables is that myths are untrue. They are used to explain something that has happened; fables tell a moral story. The truths of a myth are the symbols. An example o a myth is George Washington and the cherry tree. Those event are not truthful however it explains that George Washington was a truthful man.

Posted by: Emma Riemer at February 25, 2015 02:16 AM

Rously Paul and Jan Urbaniak
Dr. Hobbs
ENG122 Academic Writing II CA12
23 February 2015
Question: What are the symbols and allegories in “Araby” by James Joyce
Answer: In the very beginning of the story we can see religion symbolism. “North Richmond Street, being blind was a quiet street except at the hour when the Christian Brothers’ School set the boys free.” (1 Joyce) Another symbol in the story is routine. People there are trapped by routine of other people what catch them in a trap. One could not go on with his plans because of routine of life of another one. On Saturday morning I reminded my uncle that I wished to go to the bazaar in the evening. He was fussing at the hall-stand, looking for the hat-brush, and answered me curtly: ‘Yes, boy, I know.’” (4 Joyce)

Posted by: Rously Paul and Jan Urbaniak at February 25, 2015 09:56 AM

Alison Colon and Rously Paul
Dr.Hobbs
ENG 122 CA12
25 February 2015

Question : Symbolism within the context “The Bear”

Answer: In the story “The Bear” the word bear is used, as a symbol for someone who is simple minded, vulgar, rude, and just absurd. Smirnoff who is the main character is labeled as the bear (Chekhov 11) for his rash way of thinking and his inappropriate ways of expressing himself and his thoughts.

Posted by: Alison Colon at February 25, 2015 10:51 AM

Selena Hammie and Kaitlin Murphy
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA12
25 February 2015

“Writing about Symbolism and Allegory”

Question: What symbols were used in the short story “The Curious Case of Benjamin Button?”

The symbols that were used in this short story was when Mr. Button went to the store to buy Benjamin clothes. When Benjamin was born he was born a 70 year-old man and to avoid any curiosity with the outside world the Button family tried to keep everything a secret. Instead of buying him regular clothes he bought clothes that suited Benjamin’s age so he wanted to buy him a suit, “But a frantic inspection of the boy’s department revealed no suits to fit the new-born Button.” (Fitzgerald page 2) Later on Roscoe, Benjamin’s son, wants Benjamin to disguise himself with glasses and fake whiskers. “Roscoe had approached him with the proposition that he should wear eye-glasses and imitation whiskers glued to his cheeks, and it had seemed for a moment that the farce of his early years was to be repeated” (Fitzgerald 10). This is ironic that his son wants his dad to disguise his true self from the world just as his parents wanted Benjamin to hide his true self earlier in life. They won’t just let Benjamin be himself to the world, they constantly want him to hide his identity to fit in.

Posted by: Selena Hammie at February 25, 2015 11:06 AM

Jorge, Vil, Amanda
Dr. Hobbs
Academic Writing II CA12
25 February 2015
Super Toys

Symbolism and Allegory –
A symbol for Monica would be the rose when she plucks one she blows it to David and at the end of the story, he picks one up as a remembrance of her
The robot kid takes place of normal children until they can have one of their own.

Posted by: Jorge,Vil,Amanda at February 25, 2015 11:10 AM

Kathleen Sholl, Amber Dunlap, Jan Uraniak
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA 12
25 February 15

“A Good Man is Hard to Find” Discussion Question

Question: What is the symbol in “A Good Man is Hard to Find”?

Answer: The symbol in “A Good Man is Hard to Find” is the grandmother’s hat. This hat represents her misguided moral code. She wears it to define to the world that she is a lady and dresses up as if she is prepared in case of a tragic car accident. “In case of an accident, anyone seeing her dead on the highway would know at once that she is a lady” (O’Connor 2). Eventually, when she is involved in one, the hat falls apart just like her ethicalness. She is portrayed as a snobby, old-fashion, selfish women who values moral philosophy and material items more than life itself. “The old lady settled herself comfortably, removing her white cotton gloves and putting them up with her purse” (O’Connor 2). This symbol is contextual because a hat does not necessarily mean “a lady” to everyone.

Posted by: Kathleen Sholl, Amber Dunlap, Jan Uraniak at February 25, 2015 11:13 AM

Charis Lavoie, Emily Buckley, and Emma Riemer
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA12
27 February 2015

Question: What are the symbols/allegory’s in Young Goodman Brown?
Answer: Goodman Brown represents innocence while his wife, Faith, represents his faith and how he loses it. The pink ribbons represent the difference between appearance and reality. Another symbol in this story is the city in which it took place, Salem, this is where the witch trials were held where many of the villagers were accused of using witchcraft. This story is a parallel to Little Red Riding Hood; Little Red is like young Goodman and the villagers are like the wolf dressed as the grandmother.

Posted by: Charis Lavoie at February 26, 2015 02:16 PM

Matthew Beebe
Dr. B. Lee. Hobbs
ENG122 Academic Writing II CAO3
September 30, 2015

Question: In your own words, explain Roberts’s description of how a “fable” is different than a “parable.” Try to think of an example of each that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize them briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan” and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).

Answer: A fable is a short story with animals as characters, and they convey a moral. A parable is a simple short story used to illustrate a moral or spiritual lesson. An example of a fable is any and the grasshopper. A brief summary of this story is the grasshopper invited the ant for a chat, and the ant was too busy for that because he was working hard to prepare for winter. The grasshopper ignored him and let him continue doing what he was doing. Eventually when winter came around the grasshopper was hungry while the ant had plenty of food. The lesson learned is to prepare for the days of necessity. An example of a parable is the story of the butterfly. It shows the he was having a hard time and struggling to turn into a butterfly. The teaching this parable is that sometimes we need struggles to grow.

Posted by: Matthew Beebe at September 30, 2015 11:44 AM

Cannelle Samson
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA03
30 September 2015

Question: FILL-IN-THE-BLANK: According to Edgar Roberts, “symbolism and allegory are literary devices that” _________________________ (129).


Answer: According to Edgar Roberts, “symbolism and allegory are literary devices that” _Expand meaning (Roberts, 129).

Posted by: Cannelle Samson at September 30, 2015 11:58 AM

Peyton Farrier
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA09
30 September 2015

Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CULTURAL SYMBOL”? Why might the other sometimes-used name “universal symbol” be problematic?

Answer: Two main symbols are cultural and contextual. Cultural symbol is looking at our own background and using that in a story, “They embody ideas and emotions that writers and readers share the same historical and cultural tradition” (Roberts 130). It might be problematic because not everyone has the same views in life as other people do. One person might believe something that somebody else thinks is totally crazy.

Posted by: Peyton Farrier at September 30, 2015 04:22 PM

Madison Helms
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA03
30 September 2015


Question: Roberts explains that “an allegory” is like a symbol” but is “more sustained than symbolism” (131). To help you remember, he says that “allegory is to a symbol as a motion picture is to __________________.”


Answer: An allegory is like a symbol because it transfers and broadens meaning. The term is deriver from the Greek word "Allegorien" which means "to say something beyond what is commonly understood." An allegory is to a symbol as a motion picture is to a still picture.

Posted by: Madison Helms at September 30, 2015 04:56 PM

Sabrina McIntyre
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA03
30 September 2015

Question: Short Answer: As you read to discover symbols in a literary text, what does Roberts recommend you do to "determine what is symbolic (and what is not symbolic)? (131)

Answer: First, to determine what is symbolic you need to judge the importance that the author gives to the story and whether it is consistent or not (Roberts 131). For example, in Wharton's "Roman Fever" he kept mentioning the Colosseum. It was first referred to in the beginning when Alida and Grace were talking about Alida's grandmother. Then, Alida and Grace said it again when Alida admitted to Grace that the letter sent to Grace wasn't from Alida's husband, but from Alida. Therefore, the Colosseum posed to be important because it was the main setting of where the conflict happened. Second, to determine what is not symbolic is whether something pops up more than once and if the symbol doesn't then it's not a symbol nor important. For example, in Ambrose's "Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge the soldier being hung was watching the river as he was slowly dying. The river was a symbol of how slow his death was, but it is mentioned once. Furthermore, a symbol must be consistent for it to be important.

Posted by: Sabrina McIntyre at September 30, 2015 09:53 PM

Shyiem-Akiem Brown
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA09
2 October 2015

Question: FILL-IN-THE-BLANK: Roberts explains that “an allegory” is like a symbol” but is “more sustained than symbolism” (131). To help you remember, he says that “allegory is to a symbol as a motion picture is to __________________.”

Answer: Roberts explains that “an allegory” is like a symbol” but is “more sustained than symbolism” (131). To help you remember, he says that “allegory is to a symbol as a motion picture is to a still picture.”

Posted by: Shyiem-Akiem Brown at October 1, 2015 12:51 AM

Zeida Alvarez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA03
30 September 2015
Question: IDENTIFICATION & EXPLANATION: In this chapter, Roberts says “there are two
types of symbols” (129). a.) Identify one and b.) explain what it means.

Answer: In chapter 8 of “Writing About Literature”, Roberts says, “There are two types of symbols- cultural and contextual” (Roberts, 129). A) One of these symbols being cultural, explained by Roberts as, “generally recognized” (Roberts, 130). The author uses cultural symbols to get ideas and emotions across to the reader, since they come from the same historical and cultural tradition.

Posted by: Zeida Alvarez at October 1, 2015 02:36 PM

Maria Gonzalez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA09
1 October 2015

Question 9: In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “myth” is different from both a “fable” and a “parable.” Try to think of an example of a myth that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize it briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan” and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).

Answer: While fables and parables are fictional, myths can be based on historical truth or represent a current idea (Roberts 133). Take for example the myth of The Trojan War. For many years it was doubtful whether or not the event actually occurred. After cross referencing The Iliad with present-day cities, Heinrich Schliemann unearthed the site that is now believed to be where the Trojan War occurred.

Posted by: Maria Gonzalez at October 1, 2015 05:11 PM

Sidnee Yaeger
Dr.Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA09
1 October 2015

Question: We don’t usually equate the objectivity favored by mathematics with the subjectivity found in literature. What is the simple mathematical formula that Roberts uses in chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of “a symbol”? What easy to remember example from real life does he provide as a model?

Answer: The mathematical formula that Roberts gives us is “a direct equation between (1) a specific object, scene, character, or action; and (2) ideas, values, persons, or ways of life” (Roberts 129). An easy way to remember is finding out want the symbol is a substitution for. For example, Roberts gave the example of a “flag stands for the ideals of the nation” (Roberts 129).

Posted by: Sidnee Yaeger at October 1, 2015 05:50 PM

ENG 121 CA03
Robert’s
“Writing about Symbolism”
1st September 2015


Question: Identify AND briefly summarize the title and subject of one fable, parable, or myth that you know that you have NOT read for this course AND has NOT been discussed by either Roberts or your instructor. You must correctly explain if it is a “parable,” “fable,” or “myth” (to get this correct, you must understand the difference between them)

Answer: The Myth of Sisyphus was written by Albert Camus, the title deriving from King Corinth. Camus described this myth saying that there is a fundamental conflict between what we want from the universe and what we find in the universe. In Sisyphus it proclaims how we will never find in life itself the meaning that we want to find. Either we will discover that meaning through a leap of faith, by placing our hopes in a God beyond this world, or we will conclude that life is meaningless. This story is considered a myth because it is a story that was handed down throughout history and tradition and explains something of the unknown. A fable and a parable differ by multiple ways. A parable is a brief, succinct story, in prose or verse that illustrates a moral or religious lesson. It differs from a fable in that fables use animals, plants, inanimate objects, and forces of nature as characters, while parables generally feature human characters. It is a type of analogy

Posted by: Tannor Berry at October 1, 2015 06:13 PM

Conner Knaresboro
Dr. Hobbs
Eng 122 Academic Writing II CA09
1 October 2015

Question: As you read to discover symbols in a literary text, what does Roberts recommend you do to "determine what is symbolic (and what is not symbolic)? (131).
Answer: Roberts tells readers to see if the object, action, or character is symbolic by seeing if it has the same meaning throughout the story and judge if the author gives importance to it. Roberts uses "The Three Strangers" as an example and he writes about" how the mead given to their guest is not simply a celebrity drink and when the second stranger drinks too much of it is the imposition of law on people" (Roberts 131).

Posted by: Conner Knaresboro at October 1, 2015 06:41 PM

Emma Duncan
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA03
1 October 2015

Question: Roberts explains that “an allegory is like a symbol” but is “more sustained than symbolism” (131). To help you remember, he says that “allegory” is to a symbol as a motion picture is to ______”
Answer: “Allegory” is to a symbol as a motion picture is to a still picture”

Posted by: Emma Duncan at October 1, 2015 06:51 PM

Luis Bautista
Dr. Hobbs
ENG-122 Academic Writing
1 October 2015
Question: Roberts gives some advice on how to determine if “an object, action, or character” is either symbolic or “not symbolic.” In your own words, explain that advice. Why should the reader of Thomas Hardy’s “The Three Strangers” know that the cup of mead has symbolic value? (To understand Roberts’ answer, be sure you can explain the words “imposition,” “arbitrary,” “capricious,” and “punitive”). Using what you know about the definitions of cultural and contextual symbols, which of the two best fits/describes the cup of mead? Why?
“In the determining whether an object, action, or character is a symbol, you need to judge the importance that the author gives to it. If the element is prominent and also contains a consistency of meaning, you can justify interpreting it as a symbol”. (Roberts 131)
Answer: Roberts believe that in order to determine whether and object, action, or character is a symbol the reader needs to pay attention to the importance that the author gives to it. The reader needs also to judge and analyze the consistency of meaning to be able to identify it as the symbol. Roberts describes two kinds of symbols to help the reader identify it better: Contextual symbols and cultural symbols. In the “The Three Strangers” the mead that Fennels shares with the guests it’s a contextual symbol because the symbolic meaning of the mead comes from the context. In other words, the mead becomes symbolic when the second stranger starts drinking more than the rest of the guests without sharing. The reader should know that the cup becomes a symbol of the story because of contextual meaning and circumstance in the scene.

Posted by: Luis Bautista at October 1, 2015 07:56 PM

Jaclyn Taylor
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA03
1 October 2015

Question 4: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL”? How are these self-contained symbols less problematic (yet, require a little more effort) than cultural/universal symbols?

Answer: The two types of symbolism that Roberts talks about in his writing is cultural and contextual. Cultural symbolism is the idea and the emotions that are embodied by the writer and reader. Contextual symbol is a derived meaning from their context and circumstances of individual works.

Posted by: Jaclyn Taylor at October 1, 2015 08:06 PM

Brittany Cordero
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA09
1 October 2015

Question: In his attempt to explain what an “allegory” is, Roberts does something unusual. He uses two other commonly-used literary devices for illustration. In one instance, he uses simile (I discussed the difference between metaphor and simile in an earlier lecture). Be prepared to read Roberts’s use of simile aloud. In another instance, he uses an analogy (in the logical sense that they are used on the M.A.T. test, e.g., “Beethoven is to composing as Van Gogh is to painting.”) Be prepared to read Roberts’s use of analogy aloud. In your own words, explain the difference between “symbol” and “allegory.”

Answer: Roberts says, "an allegory is to a symbol as a motion picture is to a still picture," which shows how he feels an allegory has more of a movement than a symbol does (Roberts 131). Allegory is more of the overall method and structure of presenting symbolism in a story. Symbolism can be done without allegory, but the symbolism is needed for an allegory.

Posted by: Brittany Cordero at October 1, 2015 08:33 PM

Zekeriya Kayaselcuk

Dr. Hobbs

ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA 09

October 1, 2015


Questions: According to Edgar Roberts, “symbolism and allegory are literary devices that” _________________________ (129).

Answer: Symbolism is a literary device that links a connection between a person and objects, events, and places that have a specific meaning to the person. It is important for providing more emotion and ideas to works of literature. “What makes a symbol symbolic is its capacity to signify additional levels of meaning-major ideas, simple or complex emotions, or philosophical or religious qualities or values.” (Roberts pg. 129). According to Edgar V. Roberts, it is important to understand what is symbolic and not symbolic. To determine what is symbolic, the reader needs to pay attention to the amount of importance the author is giving to the specific object, place, or event. Allegory is a literary device that is a piece of literature in which people, objects, or events have a symbolic meaning. Allegory is related to symbolism, yet allegory is more persistent than symbolism. “An allegory is like a symbol because it transfers and broadens meaning.” (Roberts pg. 131). Allegories are usually about religion, morals, politics, and social values. Some stories are allegories, and other stories are not but they could include certain parts of the story that are allegorical. “To the degree that literary works are true not only because of the lives of their main characters but also because of life generally, one might maintain that much literature may be considered allegorical even though the authors did not plan their works as allegories." (Roberts pg. 131).

Posted by: Zekeriya Kayaselcuk at October 1, 2015 09:05 PM

Catalina Suarez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA03
1 October 2015

Question: In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “myth” is different from both a “fable” and a “parable.” Try to think of an example of a myth that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize it briefly to the class.
Answer: A myth is a story that explains values or certain rules of the time it was created and are used to be understood through, “symbolic and allegorical interpretations.”(Roberts, 6). A fable focuses on things or animals possessing human traits. A parable focuses more on a religious way where stories are told to, “show God’s understanding, forgiveness, concern, and love.” (Roberts, 6). An example of a myth is the tale of Daedalus and Icarus. In this myth, a man named Daedalus was an artist and used his talent to create wings for his son, Icarus and him to escape an island that they were trapped in. They worked but because the son flew too high closer to the sun, the wax that held the feathers of his wings together began to melt off thus leading him to plunge into the sea and drown. One of the messages that this story portrayed is to obey what your parents tell you because if Icarus listened when his dad said not to fly too high, he wouldn’t have fell to his death.

Posted by: Catalina Suarez at October 1, 2015 10:51 PM

Johnny Nguyen
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 CA09
1 October 2015

Question: 13.FILL-IN-THE-BLANK: Roberts explains that “an allegory” is like a symbol” but is “more sustained than symbolism” (131). To help you remember, he says that “allegory is to a symbol as a motion picture is to __________________.”

Answer: Still Picture

Posted by: Johnny Nguyen at October 1, 2015 11:35 PM

Lois Martinez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA03
30 September 2015

Question: In his attempt to explain what an “allegory” is, Roberts does something unusual. He uses two other commonly-used literary devices for illustration. In one instance, he uses simile (I discussed the difference between metaphor and simile in an earlier lecture). Be prepared to read Roberts’s use of simile aloud. In another instance, he uses an analogy (in the logical sense that they are used on the M.A.T. test, e.g., “Beethoven is to composing as Van Gogh is to painting.”) Be prepared to read Roberts’s use of analogy aloud. In your own words, explain the difference between “symbol” and “allegory.”

Answer: Although both concepts carry out a similar symbolic meaning in a story, they differ in few aspects. A symbol could be represented as an object or an idea that has a strong meaning to the character of the story, whereas an allegory carries out a symbolical meaning through the ideas, speeches, and actions of the events of the story. It relates more to the overall meaning of the story like a valuable lesson after a tale. Roberts that “an allegory is to a symbol as a motion picture is to a still picture” because an allegory is an expanded definition of Symbolism (Roberts 131).

Posted by: Lois Martinez at October 1, 2015 11:40 PM

Zachary Pottle
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA03
2 October 2015

Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CULTURAL SYMBOL”? Why might the other sometimes-used name “universal symbol” be problematic?

Answer:

The two main types of symbolism are cultural and contextual. When Roberts is explaining Cultural Symbols he states, "They embody ideas and emotions that writers and readers share as heirs of the same historical and cultural tradition" (Roberts 130). Roberts is saying that these cultural symbols are shared between writers and readers, they have the same cultural background and are generally known by everyone. The term "universal symbol" can be problematic for one reason, they are not always universal. These symbols do not always known by the general public.

Posted by: Zachary Pottle at October 2, 2015 12:21 AM

Anayah McKenzie
Dr. Hobbs
Eng Academic Writing II CA03
October 2, 2015

Question: Roberts gives some advice on how to determine if “an object, action, or character” is either symbolic or “not symbolic.” In your own words, explain that advice. Why should the reader of Thomas Hardy’s “The Three Strangers” know that the cup of mead has symbolic value? (To understand Roberts’ answer, be sure you can explain the words “imposition,” “arbitrary,” “capricious,” and “punitive”). Using what you know about the definitions of cultural and contextual symbols, which of the two best fits/describes the cup of mead? Why?

Answer: To determine is an object, action or character is symbolic or not, one must spot the character, object or action that stands out the most and also hints at the idea of its symbolism every time it appears. The reader of Thomas Hardy’s “The Three Strangers” knew that the cup of meads were symbolic because the second stranger drank more than his share gave the mead symbolic meaning. The cup of mead clues the unwelcome demand of the law on the people in that time, was based on random choices not the system, a sudden change of mood or behavior and was intended as punishment. Contextual symbolism would best describe the cup of mead; due to the fact that this cannot be seen as universal. It had more of a private meaning to it whereas not everyone would pick up on it right away.

Posted by: Anayah McKenzie at October 2, 2015 12:43 AM

Alexis Clayton
Doctor Hobbs
Academic Writing II CA03
October 1 2015

Question 14: CLARIFICATION: Roberts states that “closely related to symbolism and allegory [ . . . ] are three additional forms==fable, parable, and myth” (132-33). Explain the difference between TWO of them.

Answer: Fable- a short tale with a pointed moral
Parable- is a short narrative illustrating a religious concept
Myth- is a tale with political, social, religious, and philosophical meaning
Roberts says that a parable is from the Greek and a fable is from the Latin. Also a fable is like animal with human traits meanwhile a parable is usually associated with Jesus (132). That is how they are different.

Posted by: Alexis Clayton at October 2, 2015 08:34 AM

Zach Pottle, Luis Bautista
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA03
2 October 2015

Question: In your own words, recall to the class the myth of Sisyphus and explain how the story has been frequently interpreted, according to Edgar V. Roberts. What is another VERY common symbol used by writers and what has it often represented?

Answer:

The myth of Sisyphus is an ancient Greek myth. In the myth, Sisyphus is punished by the underworld Gods and sentenced to push a large boulder up a hill forever. Every time the boulder reaches the top, it falls back down to the bottom, because he has to keep pushing it back up to the top forever. This myth has been interpreted as a symbol of human condition. Roberts tell us just how it has been interpreted by saying, "In spite of constant struggle, a person rarely if ever completes anything. [...] the same problems confront humanity throughout all time" (Roberts 130). Another very common symbol of life is water. Water is essential to all living things on Earth. It also conveys the meaning of baptism, and new beginnings.

Posted by: Zachary Pottle at October 2, 2015 09:54 AM

Group 2; Lady Hernandez & Cannelle
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA03
2 October 2015

Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean by the expression “cultural symbol”? Why might the other sometimes-used named “universal symbol” be problematic?

Answer: The two types are contextual and cultural. He states cultural symbolism as “the writer assumes that readers know what the symbols represent.” An example of a universal symbol would be when water is used for a baptism. Which is why universal symbols are more problematic due to each culture defining objects differently. Contextual symbols are symbols derived from that writers individual works. Edgar Allan Poe uses a clock in the Masque of the Red Death while he also uses it in the Tell-Tale Heart to depict the passing of time and suspense.

Posted by: lady hernandez at October 2, 2015 10:02 AM

Madison Hellms, Catalina Suarez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA03
2 October 2015

Question #7: Why, according to Roberts, are “[a]llegories and the allegorical method [ . . . ] more than literary exercises”? In your own words, recall for the class several of the reasons
he gives.
Answer: Roberts says in the text that allegories and the allegorical method are more than literary exercises. An example of this is that he goes on to say that, “Readers and listeners learn and memorize stories and tales more easily than moral lessons, and therefore allegory is a favorite method of teaching morality.” (Roberts, 4). He then goes on saying that because of the threats that the writers faced, such as censorship or reprisal, they preferred to express their opinions, views, and thoughts in the form of allegory and more of a free way so that no harm will be done to them personally.

Posted by: Catalina Suarez at October 2, 2015 10:07 AM

Matt Beebe, Jaclyn Taylor
Dr. B. Lee. Hobbs
ENG122 Academic Writing II CAO3
October 2, 2015

Question: In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “fable” is different than a “parable.” Try to think of an example of each that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize them briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan” and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).

Answer: A fable is a childhood story that has human characteristic traits. It is supposed to be a short tale with a pointed moral. A parable is a short simple story with a moral or religious bent. Parables are most often associated with Jesus who used them to embody religious insights and truths. An example of a fable is little red riding hood and the meaning of the story is that you can be misled if you don’t use your eyes, ears, and brain. An example of a parable is the parable of the two sons. Their father asked them both to go work in the vineyard. The elder son answered no but went anyways and the younger son answered yes and did not go. The older son is represented as the tax collectors and prostitutes and younger son represents the chief priests and Jewish elders. The meaning of this is people change their mind and will go to heaven whereas the “religious” people are lying and they will not.

Posted by: Matthew Beebe at October 2, 2015 10:53 AM

Michael Mooney
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA09
2 October 2015
Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL”? How are these self-contained symbols less problematic (yet, require a little more effort) than cultural/universal symbols? Roberts gives several examples. In your own words, explain the one he recalls from a text we read together as a class for this course.
Answer: Within literature there are two primary forms of symbolism. Cultural and contextual. Cultural symbols are easily recognized by readers, and as put by Edgar Roberts “…embody ideas and emotions that writers and readers share as heirs of the same historical and cultural tradition” (Roberts 130). The writer assumes that the reader is familiar with the symbols because of how often Cultural symbols are repeated throughout literature, such as George Washington and the cherry tree or the story of Prometheus. Contextual symbols are individual symbols, in a sense that they’re not actually universal, and are symbolic only within their piece of literature. According to Roberts “Contextual symbols derive their meanings from the context and circumstances of individual works” (Roberts 130). Contextual symbols are harder to implement but are more deeply rooted in the story because they are derived directly from the circumstances within the story itself. Roberts, in Writing about Literature, uses the black clock from The Masque of Red Death as an example. Within Poe’s short story, the clock marks the passage of time, but also the slow advance of death towards the Prince Prospero and his guests. Additionally, the deep tones of the clock causes the guests unease and completely stops the festivities every hour, which is symbolic with the unease people show towards their own mortality. Outside of The Masque of Red Death, the clock means next to nothing, or it could mean something completely different. For example, if the clock were to be placed in Chekov’s The Bear, it would have no meaning (other than being a gothic oddity in an upbeat comedic setting) and no symbolism. But among the atmosphere of The Masque of Red Death, it is a grim reminder of the plague’s dominion over the country and the unavoidable death waiting for all within the castle walls.

Posted by: Michael Mooney at October 2, 2015 01:44 PM

Jacie Dieffenwierth
Dr. Hobbs
ENG122 Academic Writing II CA09
2 October 2015

Question 8

Question: In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “fable” is different than a “parable.” Try to think of an example of each that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize them briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan” and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).

Answer: A fable is a “brief story” told usually with animals as the set of characters that convey a specific moral (Robert 132). The point is to tell a right or wrong and the consequences of in a simple and creative way. Parables are similar but have a “religious bent” (Roberts 133). Generally seen in the Bible, parables are also used to teach right from wrong. The main difference between the two is that one generally has a more fictional setting and cast, while parables tend to be more believable.

Posted by: Jacie Dieffenwierth at October 2, 2015 01:48 PM

Lawrence Watt
Dr.Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA09
1 October 2015

Question: Robert's states that "closely realted to symbolism and allegory are three additional forms fables, parables, and myths. Explain the difference between the two of them.

Answer: As Roberts states, there are three additional forms closely related to symbolism and allegory. These three forms being Fable, Parable, and Myth. A Fable is an old, brief, and popular story or narration. A Parable, on the other hand, a short narrative illustrating a religious concept. Then finally a myth is a tale with social, political, religious, or philosophical meaning. The difference between a fable and a parable, for example, is that of the religious aspect. “Past collectors and editors of fables have attached “morals” or explanations to the brief stories” (Roberts 132-133). Fables are more fiction that have morals or teachings that pertain to real life. On the other hand, parables have a more directed message. “Parables are most often associated with Jesus, who used them to embody unique religious insights and truths” (Roberts 133). While fables are often fictional stories that have teachings about life, parables are religious stories that are considered non-fiction and are told in a religious point of view to teach something about the religion.

Posted by: Lawrence Watt at October 2, 2015 01:54 PM

Anayah McKenzie
Dr. Hobbs
Eng Academic Writing II CA03
October 2, 2015

Question: Roberts gives some advice on how to determine if “an object, action, or character” is either symbolic or “not symbolic.” In your own words, explain that advice. Why should the reader of Thomas Hardy’s “The Three Strangers” know that the cup of mead has symbolic value? (To understand Roberts’ answer, be sure you can explain the words “imposition,” “arbitrary,” “capricious,” and “punitive”). Using what you know about the definitions of cultural and contextual symbols, which of the two best fits/describes the cup of mead? Why?

Answer: To determine is an object, action or character is symbolic or not, one must spot the character, object or action that stands out the most and also hints at the idea of its symbolism every time it appears. The reader of Thomas Hardy’s “The Three Strangers” knew that the cup of meads were symbolic because the second stranger drank more than his share gave the mead symbolic meaning. The cup of mead clues the unwelcome demand of the law on the people in that time, was based on random choices not the system, a sudden change of mood or behavior and was intended as punishment (Edgar Roberts page 131). Contextual symbolism would best describe the cup of mead; due to the fact that this cannot be seen as universal. It had more of a private meaning to it whereas not everyone would pick up on it right away.

Posted by: Anayah McKenzie at October 2, 2015 02:30 PM

Freddie Williams
Dr. Hobbs
Eng 122 Academic Writing II CAO9
October 2, 2015

Question 11 : In this chapter, Robert says “there are two types of symbols”(129). a.) Identify one and b.) explain what it means.

One of the two symbols in the story is cultural also known as universal. The meaning behind cultural is it “embody ideas and emotion that writes and readers share as heirs of the same historical and cultural tradition.”pg 130. Also,when using the cultural symbolism the writer assumes that the reader knows what the symbol already means or stands for.

Posted by: Freddie Williams at October 2, 2015 02:33 PM

Necdet Gurkan
Dr.Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA09
02 October 2015

Answer: The parable is a simple story used to illustrate a moral or spiritual lesson, as told by Jesus in the Gospels. The fable should not be confused (though it often is) with the myth or the more closely related form of writing, the parable. The parable usually has a moral maxim as well, but the content deals with the real world. According to Oxford dictionary, the fable is a short story, typically with animals as characters, conveying a moral. Often the fable makes use of animals as the central characters through personification can also be extended to inanimate objects such as trees or rocks. The myth is a traditional story, especially one concerning the early history of a people or explaining some natural or social phenomenon, and typically involving supernatural beings or events. Many times myths help to explain the unexplainable or how things came to be.

Posted by: Necdet Gurkan at October 2, 2015 02:36 PM

Group 1: Zeida Alvarez and Tannor Berry
Dr. B. Lee Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA03
2 October 2015

Question: We don’t usually equate the objectivity favored by mathematics with the subjectivity found in literature. What is the simple mathematical formula that Roberts uses in chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of “a symbol”? What easy to remember example from real life does he provide as a model?

Answer: In chapter 9 of “Writing About Literature”, Roberts uses the term “substitution” to break down the meaning of “a symbol.” “A symbol is a substitute for elements being signified” (Roberts, 2). The example that Roberts uses that is easy to remember is a flag, since it stands for the ideals of the nation.

Posted by: Zeida Alvarez at October 2, 2015 03:04 PM

Group 6
Jorge , Brittany
Dr. Hobbs
ENG-122 Academic Writing II CA09
2 October 2015

Question:
In his attempt to explain what an “allegory” is, Roberts does something unusual. He uses two other commonly-used literary devices for illustration. In one instance, he uses simile (I discussed the difference between metaphor and simile in an earlier lecture). Be prepared to read Roberts’s use of simile aloud. In another instance, he uses an analogy (in the logical sense that they are used on the M.A.T. test, e.g., “Beethoven is to composing as Van Gogh is to painting.”) Be prepared to read Roberts’s use of analogy aloud. In your own words, explain the difference between “symbol” and “allegory.”
Answer:
Robert explains that an allegory " is a complete and self- sufficient narrative, but is also signifies another series of conditions or events." (Roberts 131) and for the symbol Robert tells us that " A symbol creates a direct equation between (1) a specific object, scene, character, or action; and (2) ideas, values, persons, or ways of life. " (Roberts 129) An allegory is a general concept for the the entire story and for symbolism is usually one part of the story.

Posted by: Jorge and Brittany at October 2, 2015 03:54 PM

Group 1 Sidnee Yaeger, Peyton Farrier
Dr.Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA09
2 October 2015

Question: We don’t usually equate the objectivity favored by mathematics with the subjectivity found in literature. What is the simple mathematical formula that Roberts uses in chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of “a symbol”? What easy to remember example from real life does he provide as a model?

Answer: The mathematic equation for symbol is one object, scene, character or action that represents an idea, value, persons, or way of life in another way. “In effect, a symbol is a substitute for the elements being signified, much as the flag stands for the ideals of the nation” (Roberts 129).

Posted by: Sidnee Yaeger, Peyton Farrier at October 2, 2015 04:00 PM

Michael Mooney, Lawrence Watt
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA09
2 October 2015
Question: In your own words, explain Roberts description of how a “myth” is different from both a “fable” and a “parable.” Try to think of an example of a myth that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize it briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The GoodSamaritan” and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).
Answer: Myths, Fables, and Parables are three classic forms of allegorical storytelling. While all possesses similarities, they are each unique in their background and storytelling method. A Parable is a short religious story that embodies the principles of a religion, usually relaying the story of a prophet or god (IE, the stories of Jesus as told by Luke). A Fable, on the other hand, is a short fictional tale that embodies a simple moral (like Aesop’s tale of the Fox and the Grapes). A myth, in the words of Roberts, is a “traditional story that embodies and cofifies the religious, philosophical, and cultural values of the civilization in which it is composed” (Roberts 133). A myth, as such, usually demonstrates the principals and values that the composing civilization stands for. Many civilizations, modern and ancient, possess a variety of myths passed on through history, many tales feature heroes, demigods, and mythical creatures that embody ideas, both positive and negative. A prime example is Virgil’s The Aeneid, a tale that follows Aeneas and his experiences, leading up to his settling in Italy to become the ancestor of the Romans.

Posted by: Michael Mooney at October 2, 2015 04:01 PM

Anayah McKenzie & Brayden McAvoy
Dr. Hobbs
Eng Academic Writing II CAO9
October 2, 2015

Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CULTURAL SYMBOL”? Why might the other sometimes-used name “universal symbol” be problematic?

Answer: The two categories of symbol are contextual and cultural. By cultural symbol Roberts means that they are the symbols that are commonly recognized by audience members having the same meaning or better known as universal symbol; however, it may be more recognize be a person of the same cultural background. Roberts said, “They embody ideas and emotions that writers and readers share as heirs of the same historical and cultural tradition (Roberts 130).Universal symbol can be problematic because maybe the culture in which a person is raised the symbol could have another meaning. For instance, water symbolize baptism, optimism, pollution, diminution and sexuality. In the East part of the world, baptism is not really important because their main religion is Buddhism. Therefore, water would not symbolize baptism.

Posted by: Anayah McKenzie at October 2, 2015 04:06 PM

Group 3: Maria Gonzalez, Jacie Dieffenwierth
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing 122 CA09
02 October 2015

Question 3: In your own words, recall to the class the myth of Sisyphus and explain how the story has been frequently interpreted, according to Edgar V. Roberts. What is another VERY common symbol used by writers and what has it often represented? (Hint: can be found in the text right after the discussion of Sisyphus)

Answer: The tale of Sisyphus details the punishment of trying to escape death twice. For this, Sisyphus is to push a huge boulder up a hill. Every time he is about to push it and be done, the boulder rolls back to the bottom; it’s his job to do it over again for infinity. This tale is frequently interpreted as representing the fruitless action that humanity does (Roberts 130). For example, our parents and their parents repeat the same routines. However, those who like Sisyphus meet the challenge provide meaning to their own life (Roberts 130). Another symbol used by writers is water. They use in the sense that water represents a symbol of life. “Thus, a spouting fountain might symbolize optimism, and a stagnant pool might symbolize the pollution and diminution of life” (Roberts 130).

Posted by: Maria Gonzalez at October 2, 2015 04:09 PM

Conner Knaresboro, Freddie Williams
Dr. Hobbs
Eng 122 Academic Writing II CA 09
2 October 2015

Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of a symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression "CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL"? How are these self-contained symbols less problematic (yet, require a little more effort) than cultural/universal symbols? Roberts gives several examples. In your own words, explain the one he recalls from a text we read together as a class for this course.

Answer: The two types of symbols are contextual and cultural. The Contextual symbol means "derive the meaning from the context and circumstances of individuals work" (Roberts 130). Contextual id different because the author has to mention it and give it meaning whereas cultural is setup to be symbolic based on the setting. Roberts's gives the example of the Standing Clock in Poe's "Masque of the Red Death" and what he says is that it shows the passage of time and it like sucks people into death.

Posted by: Conner Knaresboro at October 2, 2015 04:18 PM

Group 7: Hana Lee, Shyiem
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA09
2 October 2015

Question #7: Why, according to Roberts, are “[allegories and the allegorical method [. . .] more than literary exercises”? In your own words, recall for the class several of the reasons he gives.

Answer: According to Roberts, allegories and the allegorical method are more than just literary methods because readers and listeners learn and memorize stories and tales more easily than moral lessons without questions, and therefore allegory is a favorite method of teaching morality. Also, thought and expression have not always been free and safe. Authors can express their views indirectly in the form of allegory rather than name names and write openly. (Roberts 131-132)

Posted by: Hana Lee at October 2, 2015 04:21 PM

Lois Martinez
Emma Duncan
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA03
3 October 2015

Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL”? How are these self-contained symbols less problematic (yet, require a little more effort) than cultural/universal symbols? Roberts gives several examples. In your own words, explain the one he recalls from a text we read together as a class for this course.

Answer: In "Writing about Symbolism and Allegory" by Roberts, he explains the times of symbolism and why one is more efficient than the other. The two types utilized in stories, according to the author, are cultural and contextual symbolism. Cultural symbolism is more relatable to certain cultures as in a specific object of phrase that only a certain group of people would understand, perchance. However, contextual symbolism lies more within the reading than in a specific person or object. For example, in "Young Goodman Brown" by Nathaniel Hawthorne, the character Goodman Brown starts journey to the woods, which is a symbol of witchcraft and wickedness, away from his beloved Faith who could also be interpreted as the belief or trust—which he loses at the end of the story. Roberts argues that contextual symbolism holds an advantage over the cultural symbolism because symbolism could be found in the words of the story; therefore, as long as the reader pays attention to the story he will understand, but, on the other hand, cultural symbolism is limited to the knowledge of the reader (129). Two examples that the author provides are "Masque of the Red Death" by Edgar A. Poe because of its clock's ticking and "Patterns" by Amy Lowell because its "shady seat" mentioned in the story (Robert 130).

Posted by: Lois Martinez at October 3, 2015 04:28 PM

Sabrina and Lex
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II
02 October 2015

Question: Roberts gives some advice on how to determine if "an object, action, or character" is either symbolic or "not symbolic." In your own words, explain that advice. Why should the reader of Thomas Hardy's "The Three Strangers" know that the cup of mead has symbolic value? (To understand Roberts' answer, be sure you can explain the words "imposition," "arbitrary," "capricious," and "punitive"). Using what you know bout the definitions of cultural and contextual symbols, which of the two best fits/describes the cup of mead? Why?

Answer: First, Robert's advice on how to determine if an object, action, or character is symbolic by seeing if either of those are consistent or not. If it is consistent, that proves that there is importance if it's not consistent then there's not much importance to either of those. Second, in Thomas Hardy's "The Three Strangers," I knew the cup of mead had symbolic value because it was known as the celebrity drink. The hosts of the house named the Fennel's, had given a cup to all their guests including the three Strangers, so it seemed like everyone was familiar with the drink. However, the mead became symbolic when the second stranger became punitive and rude towards the Fennel's by hogging the mead. Furthermore, the cup of mead is cultural because the Mead was known to everyone that it was an alcoholic drink, thus proving that the mead was universal.

Posted by: Sabrina McIntyre at October 4, 2015 08:51 PM

Lady Hernandez & Johnny Nyguen
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA03
5 October 2015

Question: A. identify all symbols B. which are contextual and cultural? C. why? D. identify any metaphors and/or any similes

Answer: Symbols in Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge include his watch, the creek, and the bridge. His watch symbolizes the passing of time and with each tick another second has passed. The creek symbolizes the tension that Peyton, the one being hung, is having waiting for his life to end. The bridge symbolizes a path to a better and protected life. Yet he was too stubborn to accept “the yanks” and messed with the new bridge operations and that is why he is where he is at. Two metaphors that he uses are, “The water roared in his ears like the voice of Niagara.” Giving a human trait to an important landmark. The author also mentions death itself, “Death is a dignitary who when he comes announced to be respected with formal manifestations of respect, even by those who are familiar with him.” Showing that since Peyton had advance notice of his death he must respect it. Peyton loved his life as a wealthy plantation owner with slaves and large land and a family. His thoughts during the war was, “…all is fair in love and war.” He feels no regret for what his actions were until after his death.

Posted by: lady hernandez at October 5, 2015 10:20 AM

Group 5 Jaclyn Taylor, Matt Beebe, Catalin Suarez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA03
5 October 2015

Question: Topic Symbolism: Identify all. Which are contextual and cultural? And why? Identify only metaphors and/or only similes?

Answer: One metaphor in the story is that of the weathered old look on the man’s face was that it looked as if he had been a worker or a teamsters or a sailor. Some of eh symbols in the story are one the chrysanthemums, these represent that of Elisa’s children, because she tends to them with love and care just as she would handle her own children. As you come to the second part of the story the chrysanthemums start to symbolize Elisa’s femininity and sexuality. Because with her caring for the flowers like her own children represent her femininity. Though her sexuality with her husband lacks because he doesn’t admire her flowers as the tinker had admired them which makes her sexuality grow because when he compliments them, thus complements her. And lastly the flowers represent her role as a woman First it goes from them to being her children to then about her sexuality and femininity thus it was awakened for a better romance from the tinker though their talk, but she is soon devastated when the flowers, she took so long to care for are thrown on to the road and she realizes she had settled for such an unfulfilled life. All of these symbols represent the contextual symbolism because each is a representation of that individual.

Posted by: Group 5 at October 5, 2015 10:26 AM

Necdet Gurkan, Zekeriya Kayaselcuk

Dr. Hobbs

ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA 09

October 1, 2015


Questions: Roberts gives some advice on how to determine if “an object, action, or character” is either symbolic or “not symbolic.” In your own words, explain that advice. Why should the reader of Thomas Hardy’s “The Three Strangers” know that the cup of mead has symbolic value? (To understand Roberts’ answer, be sure you can explain the words “imposition,” “arbitrary,” “capricious,” and “punitive”). Using what you know about the definitions of cultural and contextual symbols, which of the two best fits/describes the cup of mead? Why?

Answer: The key to understanding if an object, action, or character is symbolic or not is to pay attention to the amount of importance the author gives to it. “In determining whether an object, action, or place is a symbol, you need to judge the importance the author gives to it.” (Roberts pg. 131). The cup has symbolic value because the author focuses his attention to the mead between the first two strangers. The mead is repeatedly stated throughout the story meaning this might be important. This concept is a cultural symbol because everyone in the cottage is drinking mead as a celebration. The jug given to the strangers is a family mug. “The first stranger handed his neighbour the family mug—a huge vessel of brown ware, having its upper edge worn away like a threshold by the rub of whole generations of thirsty lips that had gone the way of all flesh.” (Hardy pg. 10). This concept would not be a contextual symbol because it is not a private matter, the mead is for everyone.

Posted by: Necdet Gurkan at October 5, 2015 01:52 PM

Group 1 Sidnee Yaeger, Peyton Farrier
Dr.Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA09
2 October 2015

Question: We don’t usually equate the objectivity favored by mathematics with the subjectivity found in literature. What is the simple mathematical formula that Roberts uses in chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of “a symbol”? What easy to remember example from real life does he provide as a model?

Answer: The mathematic equation for symbol is one object, scene, character or action that represents an idea, value, persons, or way of life in another way. “In effect, a symbol is a substitute for the elements being signified, much as the flag stands for the ideals of the nation” (Roberts 129).

Posted by: Sidnee Yaeger, Peyton Farrier at October 5, 2015 02:03 PM

Group 3
Shania, Jorge, Brittany
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA09

Question: Symbolism, Metaphors, Similies in Araby

Answer: The main character is a symbol of how someone can be blinded by love, coming of age (cultural). Mangan's sister is a symbol of a "virgin mary" or godlike figure because she is put upon a pedestal by the main character (cultural). The Araby itself is the exotic, and unfamiliar place that is strange and interesting to everyone (cultural). The hairbrush is a symbol of Mangan's sister and the main character's infatuation with her (contextual).
Metaphors/ Similies: "and yet her name was like a summons to all my foolish blood" (Joyce 2). "But my body was like a harp and her words and gestures were like fingers running upon the wires" (Joyce 3).

Posted by: Brittany, Jorge, and Shania at October 5, 2015 04:19 PM

Emma Duncan
Lois Martinez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing CA03
5 October 2015
Topic Symbolism: Which are cultural and contextual symbols and why? Identify any metaphor and/or simile.
Answer: There are several symbols that show up throughout the play. The death of the bird symbolizes the death of Minnie Wright/who she was before she married John. Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters describe how Minnie used to be by saying, “She used to wear pretty clothes and be lively, when she was Minnie Foster, one of the town girls singing in the choir” (Glaspell, 5). This symbol is cultural because birds are in lots of stories so it would be easy for someone to understand the symbol. When Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters answered the court attorneys question of whether Mrs. Wright was going to knot it or quilt it the ladies said, “We think she was going to – knot it” (Glaspell, 8). This symbolizes that the women have secret knowledge from paying attention to little details in the Wright household. It also symbolizes how Minnie killed her husband. This is contextual because you have to have read the story to be able to understand the symbol behind “knot it”. The broken jars symbolize how Mrs. Wright cracked and went a little mad. That symbol is cultural because anything broken in most stories symbolizes how a person is broken. The cage symbolizes how Mrs. Wright was trapped in the terrible life she had. That symbol is cultural also since there are popular stories where a bird is trapped in a cage and cannot fly and be free. A simile in the story was, “She – come to think of it, she was kind of like a bird herself…” (Glaspell, 7). A metaphor is, “For that matter, a sheriffs wife is married to the law. Ever think of it that way, Mrs. Peters?” (Glaspell, 10). Another metaphor is when Mrs. Hale says, “No, Wright wouldn’t like the bird – a thing that sang. She used to sing. He killed that, too” (Glaspell, 9).

Posted by: Emma Duncan at October 5, 2015 08:56 PM

Sabrina and Tanner
Dr. Hobbs
EN 122 Academic Writing II CA03
05 October 2015

Question: Topic Symbolism: Identify all. B. Which are contextual and cultural. C. and why? D. Identify between metaphor and /or only similes.

Answer: The symbols in Roman Fever are the Colosseum and Roman Fever itself. First, the Colosseum is a cultural symbol because as the reader, I quickly recognized it because it is where fights happened in old Rome. However, in Roman Fever, the Colosseum is known as a gathering where couples engaged in sexual activity. Second, Roman Fever was a disease called malaria that infected anyone who happened to solicit around the Colosseum during the late night hours where the bugs were breeding. Although Roman Fever can be a cultural symbol because the word "fever" associated with many meanings, Roman fever is mainly a contextual symbol within the story. Each time someone had gone to the Colosseum, Roman Fever was the consequence. For example, I found one simile in the story. Wharton states, "I'll cure him of wondering," said Mrs. Slade, stretching her hand toward a bag as discreetly opulent-looking as Mrs. Ansley's" (Wharton 2). Also, I found two metaphors in the story that were the moonlight and the golden light. For instance, the view from the moon was mentioned about two or three times regarding the Colosseum, so in my opinion I believe that it has everything to do with romance but danger as well. Wharton states, "I think those young Italian aviators we met at the Embassy invited them to fly to Tarquinia for tea. I suppose they'll want to wait and fly back by moonlight" (Wharton, 2). Therefore, this quote proves that although the Barbara and Jenny were looking for love, they should be back by moonlight because that's when the danger occurs. Finally, the golden light was crucial once the atmosphere of Grace and Alida's conversation progressed to a different route. For instance, Wharton states, "The long golden light was beginning to pale, and Mrs. Ansley lifted her knitting a little closer to her eyes. "Yes, how we were guarded" (Wharton 4). Furthermore, there are many metaphors and similes that play an important role as symbols in "Roman Fever."


Posted by: Sabrina McIntyre at October 6, 2015 09:39 AM

Luis Bautista, Zack Puttle
Dr. Hobbs
ENG-122 Academic writing
5 October 2015
The main symbol in the short story The Necklace it’s very evident. In fact, the necklace is the main symbol of the story, which represents the power of perception of feeling wealthy and the separation between reality and appearance. This symbol is a clear contextual symbol because it has a significant meaning only in the story itself. Once again, the necklace itself can be seen as a metaphor for the illusion that integrity and status in society rely upon wealth and material possessions.

Posted by: luis Bautista at October 6, 2015 03:02 PM

Cannelle Samson
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA03
5 October 2015

Question: a) Topic Symbolism: Identify all
b) Which are contextual and cultural? C) and, why?
d) Identify any metaphors and/or any similes

Answer: In “The Tattooer” by Tanizaki, there are many examples of cultural symbolism. One of these examples is found when the tattooer shows the beautiful girl a painting. The painting shows a Chinese princess, favored by the cruel Emperor Chou of Chang Dynasty, dressed in luxury and standing in a languorous pose. The princess is sipping on a cup of wine as a prisoner is chained at her feet, with eyes closed and head bowed in her honor as he awaits his fate. This painting portrays the power of women. The painted described in the short story “The Tattooer” shows cultural symbolism because it symbolisms the power of Chinese women. The man bowing to the princess before his death symbolized that powerful women are worshiped by men. The tattooer continues to symbolize the power of women with another painting called “The Victims.” This painting is of a women standing on top of copious amounts of dead men. Therefore, these two paintings symbolize that powerful Chinese women are worshiped by men. It also symbolizes that men ruin their lives or die for such powerful women. In the Tattooer, we can also see contextual symbolism with what the tattooer tattooed on the beautiful girl. The tattooer wants to make the girl even more beautiful then she already is. He wants all men to fall to their knees for her. Therefore, he tattoos a spider on the girls back. The spider symbolizes a deadly creator which kills men with its poisonousness bite. This symbolizes the danger of the beautiful girl that was tattooed by the tattooer.
In the short story “The Tattooer” one of the similes I found was when the girl wakes up from getting her tattoo done. The author states, “At this she opened her eyes slightly, in a dull stare. Her gaze steadily brightened, as the moon brightens in the evening, until it shone dazzlingly into his face” (“The Tattooer”, 143). In this simile the author is comparing the girls gaze to the moon brightening in the evening. Another simile I found was when the girl was saying goodbye to the tattooer. In the short story “The Tatooer” it states, “She darted a glance at him as bright as a sword” (143). The author is comparing the girl’s glance to be as bright and dangerous as a sword.

Posted by: Cannelle Samson at October 6, 2015 05:52 PM

(I can’t remember if I have already submitted this assignment. No changes have been made to it so it will be exactly like the one before this if I have already turned it in. Sorry for the confusion.)
Jacie Dieffenwierth
Maria Gonzalez
Hana Lee
Dr. Hobbs
ENG122 Academic Writing II CA09
5 October 2015

Group #5
Prompt: Symbolism of Super Toys?

Answer: Monica represent how lonely the world has become, “an overcrowded world is the ideal place in which to be lonely” (Aldiss 1). In trying to create the perfect companion, Henry Swinton never had time for his own wife and ended up making her even more isolated and alone (Aldiss ). Even the allusion given by the happy and eternal summer day could not bring her fulfillment or joy (Aldiss 1). The rose in the story is an embodiment of “Mummy” as David refers to his mother (Aldiss 8). When David takes the rose with him, he probably can sense he’s about to be sent back to the factory and wants a piece, something that reminds him of, his mother with him. Teddy is a symbol of the perfect child. Monica has been waiting so long to finally have her own child (Aldiss 7). However, Monica can’t appreciate David, the child she already has. David has the characteristics of a real child. He’s playful, mischievous, disobedient, and desperate for love and approval. Monica has trouble accepting David because she’s been set up with the expectation that her child will be perfect. Teddy responds when she calls and tells her the truth when she asks (Aldiss 3). When Monica gets the news that she can have her own child, she is ready to throw away David and start over again (Aldiss 8). Because children are never actually perfect, one can assume that when Monica finally gives birth, she will be just as disappointed with this one as she was with David. All of these examples are contextual, because if taken out of the story, they no longer make sense. A metaphor in the story would be, “David sat by the long window of his nursery, wrestling with paper and pencil” (Aldiss 2). David wasn’t actually have a WWE smack down with his school supplies, but was struggling to write something he was satisfied with. Another example would be when Teddy said “time went by her [Monica]” (Aldiss 3). Time didn’t actually physically pass because time is not a physically entity. It merely meant that time passes by quickly. An example of a simile would be when Monica was thinking that she should “scoop David into her arms and talk to him, as a loving mother should to a loving son” (Aldiss 4). Monica uses this to show that she wants David as her own real child but still finds that the emotion isn’t there; that a block keeps her from really committing.

Posted by: Jacie Dieffenwierth at October 7, 2015 02:43 AM

Peyton Farrier, Sidnee Yaeger, Shyiem-Akiem Brown
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II
5 October 2015

Question: What is the symbolism of Benjamin Button
a. identify as many as possible
b. Are they cultural? Are they contextual? Both? Why?
c. Simile and metaphor and which is the strongest

Answer: The symbolism in the story is when Benjamin was born “Mr. and Mrs. Roger Button were fifty years ahead of style when they decided, one day in the summer of 1860, that their first baby should be born in a hospital” (Fitzgerald 1). Benjamin was born as an old man rather than a baby because Mr. and Mrs. Roger Button were both ahead of their time. “As long ago as 1860 it was the proper thing to be born at home. At present, so I am told, the high gods of medicine have decreed that the first cries of the young shall be uttered upon the anesthetic air of a hospital, preferably a fashionable one” (Fitzgerald 1). Toward the end of the story Benjamin and his grandson were the same age physically and needing the same help even though they were both generations apart. “Little grubby boy, apparently about ten years of age who played around the house with lead soldiers and a miniature circus, was the new baby's own grandfather” (Fitzgerald 17). Going into the fact that we all die the same way as we were born, needing help and being useless “there was only his crib and Nana's familiar presence. And then he remembered nothing. When he was hungry he cried--that was all” (Fitzgerald 18). It wouldn’t be cultural; it would only be contextual because something like this wouldn’t happen to somebody in real life. Nobody can have a child born that was an old man and still only be an hour old. A couple similes in the story are “They would sit for hours, these two, so far apart in age and experience, and, like old cronies, discuss with tireless monotony the slow events of the day” (Fitzgerald 7). "Old fellows like me can't learn new tricks," he observed profoundly. "It's you youngsters with energy and vitality that have the great future before you." (Fitzgerald 10). “But when his own time came, and he drifted with her out upon the changing floor to the music of the latest waltz from Paris, his jealousies and anxieties melted from him like a mantle of snow” (Fitzgerald 11). A couple of metaphors found in the story are “the blue enamel of her eyes assumed the aspect of cheap crockery” (Fitzgerald 12). “He wondered what possible fascination she had ever exercised over him” (Fitzgerald 13). “he found the room full of faint blue haze and Benjamin, with a guilty expression on his face, trying to conceal the butt of a dark Havana” (Fitzgerald 7). “What the mishap would have cost the Buttons and their kinsfolk socially cannot be determined, for the outbreak of the Civil War drew the city's attention to other things” (Fitzgerald 7). “You are a dangerous lunatic” (Fitzgerald 9) The strongest of the two are metaphor’s because there a numerous explaining the people in the story and trying to show how each person looks.

Posted by: Peyton Farrier at October 7, 2015 11:30 AM

Zekeriya Kayaselcuk, Necdet Gurkan, Lawrence

Dr. Hobbs

ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA 09

October 5, 2015

Question: Symbolism A) identify as many as possible B) Cultural? Contextual? Both? Why? C) Simile and Metaphor, strongest ones.


Answer: “The Bear” by Anton Chekov provides a few examples of symbolism throughout the story. The most important symbol throughout the story is the chair that is constantly broken by Smirnoff. This symbol is contextual, showing Smirnoff’s growing frustration as he continued to argue with Popova. Also, Smirnoff is getting nervous because he is starting to become attracted to Popova. “Well goddamn it, is it my fault I like you? (Grabs a chair behind his back; the chair cracks and breaks) Why do you have such fragile furniture! I like you! You understand? I…I think I’m in love with you!” (Chekov pg. 32). Another example of symbolism is how Popova relates a bear to Smirnoff. This symbol is showing Popova trying to get the attention of Smirnoff. Popova is calling him a bear because he is loud and angry in their argument. This symbol is also a metaphor because she is referring to Smirnoff as a bear. “You peasant! You bear! You vulgar bear! Monster! You…radical!” (Chekov pg. 29) . This symbol is contextual because the argument is between Smirnoff and Popova; it is a private conversation.

Posted by: Zekeriya Kayaselcuk at October 7, 2015 02:48 PM

Randawnique Coakley
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 121 Academic Writing CA 06
16 February 2016

Question: 6. In his attempt to explain what an “allegory” is, Roberts does something unusual. He uses two other commonly-used literary devices for illustration. In one instance, he uses simile (I discussed the difference between metaphor and simile in an earlier lecture). Be prepared to read Roberts’s use of simile aloud. In another instance, he uses an analogy (in the logical sense that they are used on the M.A.T. test, e.g., “Beethoven is to composing as Van Gogh is to painting.”) Be prepared to read Roberts’s use of analogy aloud. In your own words, explain the difference between “symbol” and “allegory.”

Answer: In the beginning, Roberts describes a symbol as “as a substitute for elements being signified (Roberts 129).” This can be explained as a specific object or character can representing or being substitute for an idea or a value. On the other hand, an allegory is a “self-sufficient narrative, but it also signifies another series of contradictions or events (131).” Although an allegory is similar to a symbol because both transfer and broaden meaning, an allegory and symbol are still quite different. An allegory can be seen as the bigger picture or the entire story having two interpretations, where as a symbol can be viewed as a fragment or small section representing something else.

Posted by: Randawnique Coakley at February 16, 2016 06:49 AM

Chloe Lelliott
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing 2 CA06
16 February 2016

Question 4) Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. 1) what are they and 2), more importantly, what does he mean by the expression "contextual symbol"?

Answer 4)The two main categories of symbol are cultural and contextual. When he says "contextual symbol" he means symbols made within individual works. The text says that "contextual symbols derive their meaning from the context and circumstances of individual works." In other words, contextual symbols wouldn't make sense if they were taken away from their circumstances or taken out of their context. Robert's uses the example of the Shady seat in "patterns" and the large standing clock in "Masque of the red death".

Posted by: Chloe Lelliott at February 16, 2016 05:15 PM

Vincia Mitchell
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing 11 CA06
15 February 2016

Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2),more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CULTURAL SYMBOL”? Why
might the other sometimes-used name “universal symbol” be problematic?

Answer: According to (Roberts 129), there are two main types of symbols; cultural and contextual symbols. Cultural Symbols (sometimes called Universal) refers to ideas and emotions that are derived from our cultural and historical heritage (130). Universal (the other name for cultural symbol) can be problematic when referring to symbols. The word universal means worldwide or applicable to all. The universe consists of people from different ethnic origins and what may be classified as symbolic or valuable to one ethnic group may be different to other groups. Therefore, it is safe to say that cultural is a more suitable word to use since culture refers to the way of life of people living in society.

Posted by: Vincia Mitchell at February 16, 2016 07:12 PM

Hannah Rowe
Dr. Hobbs
English 122 Academic Writing II CAO6
16 February 2016

“Writing about Symbolism”

Q: #12 As you read to discover symbols in a literary text, what does Robert’s recommend you do to “determine what is symbolic (and what is not symbolic)?”

A: It is very easy for a reader to determine what is symbolic in a story and what is not. If an object (or person or action) is repeated and prominent in the story, more than likely it is symbolic. As Robert explains, the mead in “The Three Strangers” seems unimportant, until the second stranger consumes too much of it, and references to the mead keep being made. Now, the mead is representing the law-breaking stranger, instead of being viewed as a drink. Because of the repetition stressed on the mead, it is evident that the mead is symbolic (Roberts 131).

Posted by: Hannah Rowe at February 16, 2016 10:29 PM

Jennifer Belcastro
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122-Academic Writing II CA06
17 February 2016

Question: We don’t usually equate the objectivity favored by mathematics with the subjectivity found in literature. What is the simple mathematical formula that Roberts uses in chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of “a symbol”? What easy to remember example from real life does he provide as a model?

Answer: Roberts’s states there are two parts to break down what symbol means. He says it “creates a direct equation between (1) a specific object, scene, character, or action; and (2) ideas, values, persons, or ways of life” (Roberts 129). This takes the place of another thing. He uses the flag as an example. Roberts states that “the flag stands for the ideals of the nation” (129). He uses this example because the item can have a lot of meaning for the entire country or one person.

Posted by: Jennifer Belcastro at February 16, 2016 10:38 PM

Clark de Bullet
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA06
17 February 2016

Roberts’ Allegory

Question #7: Why, according to Roberts, are “[a]llegories and the allegorical method [ . . . ] more than literary exercises”? In your own words, recall for the class several of the reasons he gives.

Answer: Roberts said that “without question, readers and listeners learn and memorize stories and tales more easily than moral lessons” (Roberts 131). In this way allegories are used to educate people of important morals that would have otherwise been harder to get across. Allegories were also used for writers to still publish the work that they wanted without government censorship picking up on their true meaning (131). So allegories are not a simple “literary form” but a tool that can be very applicable to “our difficult world” (132).

Posted by: Clark de Bullet at February 17, 2016 12:51 AM

Phillip Moss
Dr. Hobbs
English 122 Academic Writing II CAO6
17 February 2016

Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL”? How are these self-contained symbols less problematic (yet, require a little more effort) than cultural/universal symbols? Roberts gives several examples. In your own words, explain the one he recalls from a text we read together as a class for this course.


Answer: The two primary categories of symbols are Cultural and Contextual. A cultural symbol is a type of symbol that all authors share and can recognize while a contextual symbol is created by a single author and is limited to the writing it can be found in. These contextual symbols are less problematic because they can always be understood by reading the text. An example of a contextual symbol can be found in “The Chrysanthemums” the flowers that Elisa cares for are symbolic of her hard work and talent that is overlooked in the story.

Posted by: Phillip Moss at February 17, 2016 11:06 AM

Matt Scharr
Dr. Hobbs
English 122 CA06 Academic Writing II
17 February 2016

Question 9.) In your own words, describe how Roberts explains how a “Myth” is different from a “Parable” and a “Fable”.
Answer: Roberts elaborates on the topic of how a “Myth” is different from a “Parable” and a “Fable” by giving examples of what each type of story is which. A Parable is usually a “Short simple story with a moral or religious bent.” (Pg. 133) These types of stories usually involve Jesus in so way shape or form. A Fable is written in a more popular form of story structure and usually involves some type of an animal or creature that behave like a human. Fables too often have some type of moral that the author tries to get across to the reader. However a Myth combines aspects from both a fable, and a parable and puts them in to a story. Roberts defines a Myth as, “…a tale with social, political, and religious, or philosophical meanings.” (Pg. 133) Robert’s definition of a Myth shows that the difference between Myth, and the other two is that it combines them all and puts them into one. An example of a Myth is the idea that a Tomato is considered a vegetable. Many people argue this claim but it goes either way.

Posted by: Matt Scharr at February 17, 2016 01:59 PM

Justin Robinson
DR. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA06
17 February 2016

Question: 15.) SHORT ANSWER: Define each of the following words: “allusion,” “parallelism (in
literature),” “dualism,” and “irony”

Answer: 15.) Allusion- while reading you are able to picture what is being said to give you a better understanding, Roberts says, “Sometimes understanding a story may require knowledge of history and current politics” (Roberts, 6).
Parallelism- the use of words in a story that are repetitive or grammatically similar in a way where the meaning or sound is similar.
Dualism- when the character in a story is meaning good but doing bad. For example if the character needs to kill the villain to save his family. His intentions are good but killing someone is bad.
Irony- When a character says something and their intended meaning is different than the actually meaning of the words.

Posted by: Justin Robinson at February 17, 2016 02:25 PM

Phillip Moss, Randawnique Coakley
Dr. Hobbs
English 122 Academic Writing II CAO6
17 February 2016

Question: In your words, recall to the class the myth of Sisyphus and explain how the story has been frequently interpreted, according to Edgar V. Roberts. What is another VERY common symbol used by writers and what has it often represented? (Hint: can be found in the text right after the discussion of Sisyphus.


Answer: The Greek myth of Sisyphus is interpreted as the struggle of the human condition; in spite of constant struggle a person rarely completes anything and the same work must be completed day to day. Other universal symbols would be ordinary water because it is necessary for all human life. Water can also be used as a contextual symbol because water can take on many different forms based on what the author wants.

Posted by: Phillip Moss at February 17, 2016 02:59 PM

Nastassja Sielchan and Matt Scharr
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA06
17 February 2016

Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of the symbol. (1.) What are they and (2), more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL”? How are these self-contained symbols less problematic (yet, require a little more effort) than cultural/universal symbols? Roberts gives several examples. In your words, explain the one he recalls from a text we read together as a class for this course.

Answer: The types of symbolism Roberts explains are cultural and contextual, contextual symbols are described within the book while cultural symbols are real world experiences. Contextual symbols are easier to understand because the writer explains it in the book since they need to be explained it requires more effort from the writer. Cultural symbolism can be interpreted many different ways which make them more complex. The example that Roberts used was from The Three Strangers. The example given explains how the mead was supposed to be a celebratory drink, but in the story the “threatening and obnoxious” stranger took too much, and it became symbolic of the story having to do with the law.

Posted by: Nastassja Sielchan at February 17, 2016 03:00 PM

Hannah Rowe, Clark de Bullet
Dr. Hobbs
English 122 Academic Writing II CA06
17 February 2016

Q: #1 What is the simple mathematical equation that Roberts uses in chapter 8 to breakdown the meaning of a “symbol”? What easy way to remember example from real life does he provide as a model?

A: Roberts simply states that the “mathematical equation” is “the direct equation between (1) a specific object, scene, character, or action; and (2) ideas, values, persons, or ways of life”(Roberts 129). So, a symbol acts as a substitute for an element. One of Roberts examples from real life is our flag: it stands for the ideals we all hold as a nation. Another could be a dog to a widow. The dog belonged mostly to her husband or has now passed (129). So, she loves the dog, and when she sees it, it reminds her of her husband, and she enjoys caring for and loving it.

Posted by: Hannah Rowe at February 17, 2016 03:11 PM

Vincia Mitchell, Chloe Lelliott, Allison Cobb
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing 11 CA06
17 February 2016

Question: Roberts says that there are two main categories of symbol. (1.) What are they and (2),more importantly, what does he mean the expression “CULTURAL SYMBOL”? Why
might the other sometimes-used name “universal symbol” be problematic?

Answer: According to (Roberts 129), there are two main types of symbols; cultural and contextual symbols. Cultural Symbols (sometimes called Universal) refers to ideas and emotions that are derived from our cultural and historical heritage (130). Universal (the other name for cultural symbol) can be problematic when referring to symbols. The word universal means worldwide or applicable to all. The universe consists of people from different ethnic origins and what may be classified as symbolic or valuable to one ethnic group may be different to other groups. For example, the Bible is considered to be a scared and holy book for the Christians. The Muslims, on the other hand, the Bible is just another book, which has no significance or value to them. Therefore, it is safe to say that cultural is a more suitable word to use since culture refers to the way of life of people living in society.

Posted by: Vincia Mitchell at February 18, 2016 10:18 PM

Travis Farmer, Omar Martinez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA06
17 February 2016

Question: In your own words, explain Roberts’s description of how a “myth” is different from both a “fable” and a “parable.” Try to think of an example of a myth that is NOT provided by Roberts and summarize it briefly to the class (as your classmate did for “The Good Samaritan” and I did for “Samson and Delilah” in a previous meeting).

Answer: A myth is a story that has a philosophical meaning to it. The main characters are usually described as a hero, god, and demigod. A lot of myths are based in historical truth, others are usually fictional (Roberts 133). “A myth (from Greek muthos, a “story” or “plot”) is a traditional story that embodies and codifies the religious, philosophical, and cultural values of the civilization in which it is composed.” A fable is story that is more about animals having human traits. “The fable (from fabula, a story of narration) is an old, brief, and popular form. Often but not always, fables are about animals that possess human traits (such fables are called beast fables) (Roberts 132).”

Posted by: Omar Martinez at February 18, 2016 10:56 PM

Justin Robinson, Jennifer
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA06
19 February 2016

Question: 6.) In his attempt to explain what an “allegory” is, Roberts does something unusual. He
uses two other commonly-used literary devices for illustration. In one instance, he
uses simile (I discussed the difference between metaphor and simile in an earlier
lecture). Be prepared to read Roberts’s use of simile aloud. In another instance, he
uses an analogy (in the logical sense that they are used on the M.A.T. test, e.g.,
“Beethoven is to composing as Van Gogh is to painting.”) Be prepared to read
Roberts’s use of analogy aloud. In your own words, explain the difference between
“symbol” and “allegory.”

Answer: 6.) A symbol is something that people use to communicate without words. Meanwhile an allegory is like a symbol because it transfers and broadens the meaning. An allegory is more sustained than symbolism, in the story it says, "an allegory is to a symbol as a motion picture is to a still picture". (Roberts, 131)

Posted by: Justin Robinson at February 19, 2016 02:20 PM

Randawnique Coakley and Nastassja Sielchan
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 121 Academic Writing II CA 06
19 February 201

Question: Identify a cultural symbol in the story (allusion is a cultural symbol). Identify the contextual symbol in the story. Is this narrative: a. Allegorical b. mythological c. parable-like or d. fable-like?

Answer: The short story of "The Three Strangers", by Hardy, contain numerous amount of symbolism: cultural and contextual. One cultural symbol that is seen in “The Three Strangers” is the candle, and this is shown when Hardy mentions that “The room was lighted by half-a-dozen candles (Hardy 4).” The reader from the same cultural tradition can recognize that the candle is a symbol for light, holiness, and goodness. The light that is scattered in the room for this gathering that represents goodness creates a peaceful and joyful atmosphere. This atmosphere that is established by Hardy will be contrasted by the mysterious strangers that are soon to arrive, changing the atmosphere to eerie and cryptic.
One main contextual symbol in the story is the mead being drank. The mead can be seen as a drink for celebration; however, Hardy focuses and bring attention to how the mead is being drank by the second stranger, in particular. In fact, the second stranger is given this drink, and he toke “up the mug a third time and setting it down empty (10).” This second stranger guzzles down this drink, consuming more than his expected share. This suggests that the mead takes on a symbolic meaning that represents the imposition of law on people or at least the selfishness actions of one that burdens others in society. This symbol is contextual because only make sense in this passage because of the Hardy showing importance on this mead. Through this symbolism, the second stranger is portrayed as arrogant and selfish, thinking he can take more than he should.
This story can be seen as allegorical. The Fennel’s opening their celebration to the three strangers can be symbolic of a person opening his or her heart to new people. The strangers in the story represents the friends; they illustrate that appearances can be deceptive and those who may not expect can cause detriment to your life. The third stranger who suspected to be the escaped prisoner is not and the first stranger is, and this again illustrates that anyone can be a wolf in sheep’s clothing. The moral of this narrative can essentially don’t judge a book by its cover and don’t jumpy to hasty conclusions, representing for anyone meeting new people.

Posted by: Randawnique Coakley at February 20, 2016 01:23 AM

Vincia Mitchell, Omar Martinez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA06
19 February 2016

Question: 1. Identify a cultural symbol in the story.
Answer: Being born in a hospital instead of being at home. “…one day in the summer of 1860, that their first baby should be born in a hospital (Fitzgerald 1).”
Question: 2. Identify a contextual symbol.
Answer: His hair dye was a contextual symbol because he was born as an old person and he had gray hair. His father told him to dye his hair so he can look younger. “…the Button family had had his hair cut short and then dyed to a sparse unnatural black, had had his face shaved so dose that it glistened (Fitzgerald 6)…”
Question: 3. Is this narrative: (a) Allegorical (b) mythological (c) parable-like (d) fable-like? Why or why not?
Answer: Biblical illusion: Benjamin is referred to as Methuselah, who is the oldest person recorded in the Bible who died. “Wrapped in a voluminous white blanket, and partly crammed into one of the cribs, there sat an old man apparently about seventy years of age (Fitzgerald 3).” He was born old, so he called him that just because he was an old baby.
Question: 4. Identify a metaphor or a simile, or both in your story.
Answer: Metaphor: The son asks the father for his name and the father decided to call him Methuselah because the son looks so much older than what a normal baby would look like. “"I don't know," he answered harshly. “I think we'll call you Methuselah (Fitzgerald 6)."”

Posted by: Omar Martinez at February 21, 2016 10:07 PM

Chloe Lelliott, Jennifer Belcastro
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122- Academic Writing II CA06
22 February 2016

Questions: Identify a cultural symbol in the story. Identify a contextual symbol in the story. Is this a narrative: allegorical, mythological, parable-like, fable-like, or allusion? Why or Why not? Identify a metaphor or a simile, or both in your story.

Answer: The cultural symbol of “The Storm” is the affair between Calixta and Alcée and the title of the story, this is not going to be stated right away but figured out by reading. The contextual symbol of “The Storm” is the storm outside and Calixta’s affair, this is a given because the storm and the affair are happening at the same time. The narrative is an allegorical because Calixta has no moral about her marriage to her husband and having the affair with Alcée. She does not have any second guesses about cheating on her husband. “The Storm” has a metaphor and a simile. The metaphor is “somber clouds that were rolling with sinister intention” (Chopin 1). This means that the clouds had a dangerous storm approaching the town. The simile is “Her lips were as red and moist as pomegranate seeds” (Chopin 3). Calixta’s lips were vibrant and soft like they were seeds from a pomegranate.

Posted by: Jennifer Belcastro at February 22, 2016 10:58 AM

Nastassja Sielchan
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 122 Academic Writing II CA06
16 February 2016

Question: Roberts gives some advice on how to determine if “an object, action, or character” is either symbolic or “not symbolic.” In your words, explain that advice. Why should the reader of Thomas Hardy’s “The Three Strangers” know that the cup of mead has symbolic value? (To understand Roberts’ answer, be sure you can explain the words “imposition,” “arbitrary,” “capricious,” and “punitive”). Using what you know about the definitions of cultural and contextual symbols, which of the two best fits/describes the cup of mead? Why?

Answer: To realize that an object, action, or character has symbolic meaning, one must see if there is a deeper meaning of the object. If the author gives a lot of importance or emphasis to a certain thing, chances are, it is a symbol of something greater than it is. Roberts says, “If the element is prominent and also maintains a consistency of meaning, you can justify interpreting it as a symbol” (Roberts 131). The cup of mead is a contextual symbol because it is not widely known for mead to mean anything other than just that. Hardy had to infer that the mead meant something more in his story.

Posted by: Nastassja Sielchan at February 22, 2016 12:27 PM

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