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September 08, 2012

Looking Through the Glass of Tennessee Williams's _Menagerie_


Image Source: http://www.genconnection.com/English/11/menagerie.jpg

Williams, Tennessee. The Glass Menagerie. 1944. American. Drama.

ENG 311 Students,

Below, please . . .

. . . enter your work on this text as prescribed in class.

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Posted by lhobbs at September 8, 2012 10:22 PM

Readers' Comments:

Shyenne Price
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
October 1, 2012

Question: “How is it shown that the boy in the yearbook was important to Laura? Why doesn’t Amanda seem particularly interested in this young man?”

Answer: Laura remembers the little details about Jim and is excited to talk about him to her mother. “Here he is in The Pirates of Penzance… Here he is with the silver cup for debating! See his grin?” (Williams, ii, 45-54) I think that Amanda was not interested in the boy because he did not go after Laura; she simply admired him from a distance.

Posted by: Shyenne Price at October 1, 2012 11:33 PM

Sarah Winans
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
2 October 2012

Question: How is Laura's relationship with Tom different from her relationship with Amanda? How can you tell that Tom is truly fond of Laura?

Answer: Laura's relationship with Tom is different her relationship from Amanda because she seems more afraid of Amanda. She kept her secret of dropping out of school from Amanda because she knew she would be disappointed (Scene 2 page 757). Tom seems fond of Amanda because he was honest and gentle when talking to her about his nighttime activities, and he seems genuinely concerned about finding someone to take care of her. I think that Laura is very comfortable with Tom (Scene IV page 760).

Posted by: Sarah Winans at October 2, 2012 06:10 PM

De’Nisha Butler
Dr.Hobbs
ENG311 CA05
October 2, 2012

Question: In the conflict between Tom and Amanda in Scene Three, which character do you sympathize with, and why? What do you think Williams wants you to feel about Amanda?

Answer: I sympathize with Tom. Yes, he seems very rude towards Amanda, and has said some mean things to her. But I get the gist that Tom feels Amanda is trying to control where he goes, what he does and his occupation. He is bothered by all the Amanda does and wants to be able to go out and do what he wants without any nagging. But I sympathize with Tom because he has a lot of dreams and aspirations; he wants to be more than a worker in a shoemaker warehouse. But being at home basically taking care of his mother, sister and the rent is holding him back. Williams wants the readers to feel that Amanda is just a typical mother, caring and overbearing. Williams portrays her character as a mother who deeply cares for her kids, trying hard to find a mate for Laura, but wants them to do what she see fit in her mind. Amanda is also portrayed as a proud woman who has a hard time letting go of the past.

Posted by: De'Nisha Butler at October 2, 2012 08:28 PM

Kasey McDearis
Dr. Hobbs
ENG311CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
3 October 2012

Question: What part does Laura play in the angry argument between Tom and Amanda?

Answer: While Tom and Amanda are arguing, as he is walking out of the door he slams it, and Laura's Glass Menagerie falls to floor and shatters. Laura screams. Amanda was still in shock over the argument that she does not pay attention. When Tom comes home he is very drunk, and Laura hears him. They begin speaking about where he was all night. He states that he was at the movies, so she questions him, as Amanda did in the argument. in the morning, she has to convince him to apologize to his mother.

Posted by: Kasey McDearis at October 2, 2012 08:48 PM

Madison Grabow
Hobbs
ENG 311 Survey of Major 20th Century Writers
2 October 2012

HW Question 11: Each of the Wingfields escapes from unpleasant reality into a comforting, private world. In Scene One, Amanda escapes from her
present circumstances by remembering and talking about her past youth, her beauty, and her romantic successes. How does Laura escape from the real world? What does Tom do to escape from his unhappiness?

Answer: Laura escapes from the real world by going on strolls. Instead of attending college, Laura goes on walks. She would even go "in the art museum and the bird houses at the Zoo" (756). Most of her afternoons are spent "in the Jewel-box, that big glass house where they raise the tropical flowers" (756). Laura uses her time to walk through parks and adore her glass menagerie. Tom, on the other hand, escapes from his unhappiness by attending the movies. Every day, Tom's mother, Amanda, asks where he is going and he continues to reply "I'm going to the movies" (759). Tom spends his time watching actors and actresses living their lives the way they want to. He gains satisfaction from watching movies.

PDF file

Posted by: madison grabow at October 2, 2012 09:09 PM

Leah Hollingsworth
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
2 October 2012

Homework Question 18: The outburst of anger that ends Scene Three marks the emotional peak of the play so far. How has the playwright prepared you for Tom's anger and Amanda's accusations?

Answer: The playwright has prepared us for this argument by showing us a much calmer quarrel between Tom and Amanda which begins when Amanda instructs Tom on how to eat, and Tom becomes annoyed. Amanda says “And chew-chew! Animals have secretions in their stomachs which enable them to digest food without mastication, but human beings are supposed to chew their food before they swallow it down” (Williams 401). “I haven’t enjoyed one bite of this dinner because of your constant directions on how to eat it” responds Tom (Williams 402).
Page numbers were taken from the printed version in “Tennessee Williams: Plays 1937-1955.”

Posted by: Leah Hollingsworth at October 3, 2012 12:33 AM

Bryan Baldwin
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
3 October 2012

Question: "What is the significance of the 'blue roses' that appear in Scene Two?'

Blue Roses was the nickname that Jim had given his high school sweetheart, Laura. It also refers to Tennessee Williams' sister, Rose, on which the character of Laura is based.

Posted by: Bryan Baldwin at October 3, 2012 09:55 AM

Sherman Milton III
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311: Survey of Major 20th Century Writers
November 3, 2012

Question: In scene one, what indications are there that there is tension in the family? Who seems to cause the tension?

Answer: The main reason there is tension in the family is because the father walked out them for another woman. That hurt the mother and the children emotionally and financially, so Tom had to step up and help support the family. The mother also causes tension because she is always nagging at her son Tom about something (5).

Posted by: sherman milton at October 3, 2012 10:36 AM

Joseph Lontrato
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
October 3, 2012

Q: “What does Amanda ask Tom to do at the end of Scene Four?”

A: At the end of scene four Amanda asks her son Tom to find a gentleman for his sister Laura to meet and possibly date. On page 15 of this play Amanda says to Tom “find out one that’s clean-living, doesn't drink, and ask him out for your sister!” Tom then tells his mother he will do as she asked.

Posted by: Joseph Lontrato at October 3, 2012 11:17 AM

Timothy Delay
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
10, September 3, 2012
Question: 6. At this point in the play, does Amanda seem to be a weak or a strong character? Does she arouse your sympathy, or do you think Williams wants you to dislike her? Explain.

Answers: 6. Amanda seem to be a strong character although, see is stuck in the past she still look after her children. She so a lot of tough love to her kids and everything she does is for them. I think Williams want you to feel sorry for her. The fact she is stuck in the past keep you from hating her. She want more from her child like her daughter to have a better life. She does not want her to be lonely like she is now. (9)

Posted by: Timothy Delay at October 3, 2012 11:50 AM

Summer Taylor
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
October 3, 2012

Question 9: Few people have Laura's specific physical handicap. Do you think most people can identify with her? Why or why not?

Answer:I believe that though Laura has a specific physical handicap that most people don't have, most people can identify with her. Many people at one point or another feel the pressure of their parents being disappointed in them and sometimes being a bit too pusy in their lives. This is exactly what is happening to Laura. Amanda, her mother, expects a lot out of her and is scared that Laura will never have a job or get married. "So what are we going to do with the rest of our lives? Stay home and watch the parades go by? Amuse ourselves with the glass of menagerie, darling? ....We won't have a business career- we've given that up because it gave up nervous indigestion" (Williams 757).

Posted by: Summer Taylor at October 3, 2012 11:50 AM

Jason Anderson
Dr.Hobbs
ENG311 CA05
The Glass Menagerie Part 1

Question: Tom's opening speech sketches the social background of the play and introduces the main characters. What basic information does Tom provide in this speech about his family? About the gentleman caller? About the nature of the play itself?

Answer: Tom tells us that his father is the man in the photo, and that his father left the family with no warning to go to distant places. There is only himself, his sister Laura, and his mother Amanda. He tells the audience that the play is in memory, and therefore unrealistic; and that the gentleman caller in the final scenes is the most realistic character, who brings everyone back to reality. Tom also describes the events of the outside world, thus setting the play in the 1930s, and the Great Depression. (New Directions Books definitive edition, p.5)

Posted by: Jason Anderson at October 3, 2012 01:27 PM

Shaina McSweeney and Shyenne Price
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CAO5
3 October 2012

Question: What is the importance of Blue Mountain for Amanda? How is this important in the play as a whole?

Blue Mountain was the place where Amanda received a great amount of suitors. “One Sunday afternoon in Blue Mountain—your mother received—seventeen gentlemen callers” (Scene 1, line 10). This story is important because the rest of the play deals with Amanda’s daughter trying to find a suitor.

Posted by: Shaina McSweeney at October 3, 2012 03:01 PM

Leah Hollingaworth
Matt Lynch
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 Survey of Major Writers of 20th Century
In-Class Discussion Question

5. Sum up the situations at the end of scene 2 in terms of those themes or conflicts that are important for the play as a whole. Who or what is struggling with or in competition with whom? Who has dreams and plans? Who is foiling that character’s dreams and plans? Explain.

“So what are we going to do the rest of our lives? Stay home and watch the parades go by? Amuse ourselves with the glass menagerie, darling? Eternally play those worn-out phonograph records your father left as a painful reminder of him? We won't have a business career - we've given that up because it gave us nervous indigestion!” (Williams 9).
There are two different conflicts here both are being argued about between the mother and her daughter, one being the fact that the daughter is not attending school and the fact the mother is frustrated the father is not around and seems to take it out on her kids.
The son has dreams to become a poet yet his mother wants him to work and work in order to help provide for the family. Which he does while working in the warehouse.
The mother as well has dreams, but dreams of her children succeeding and having a good well off life. She wants her son to be able to provide for the whole family, and she wants he daughter to go attend business school and get married.
The children and the mother both kind of throw off each other’s dreams since the kids have dreams to do things on their own, yet their mother has different dreams and ambitions for them and pushes them so her dream may become reality.

Posted by: Matt Lynch at October 3, 2012 03:17 PM

Timothy Delay
Wollinsky Mendez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
October 3, 2012

Question: What's the significance of your seeing Amanda on the phone selling subscriptions at the beginning of scene 3?

Answer: Amanda is seen selling subscriptions because she needs money. "Well, I just have happened to notice that your subscription to the Companion's about to expire! Yes, it expires with the next issue, honey !- just when that wonderful new serial by Bessie Mae Hopper is getting off to such an exciting start. Oh, honey, it's something that you can't miss !You remember how 'Gone With the Wind' took everybody by storm? You simply couldn't go out if you hadn't read it. All everybody talked was Scarlet O'Hara. Well, this is a book that critics already compare to Gone With the Wind. It's the 'Gone With the Wind' of the post-World War generation! - What? -Burning !- Oh, honey, don't let them bum, go take a look in the oven and I'll hold the wire! Heavens - I think she's hung up !"(10) She believes that Tom is going to leave her and without a job, she is not able to sustain herself if he leaves. She needs comfort and security which she does not have.

Posted by: Wollinsky Mendez at October 3, 2012 03:19 PM

Madison Grabow
Joseph Lontrato
Hobbs
ENG 311 Survey of Major 20th Century Writers
3 October 2012

Class Question 4: What's the purpose of introducing the idea of Laura's old high school love interest at this point?

Answer: Amanda is constantly worrying about Laura's future. After the idea of college is out of sight, Amanda insists on finding a gentlemen caller for Laura. The only man that Laura ever mentions happens to be Jim O'Connor, the same man that comes to visit in scene 6. Discussing this man earlier is a foreshadowing effect. In scene 6, Laura lets Amanda know when referring to her brother "there was a Jim O'Connor we both knew in high school- If that is the one that Tom is bringing to dinner- you'll have to excuse me, I wont come to the table" (770). Laura goes on to explain that the gentlemen caller is the man she mentioned in the earlier scenes.

Posted by: madison grabow at October 3, 2012 04:04 PM

Madison Grabow
Hobbs
ENG 311 Survey of Major 20th Century Writers
3 October 2012

HW Question 17: Why does Laura say about the broken horn on the unicorn: "Maybe it's a blessing in disguise"?

Answer: Laura refers the broken horn to a blessing because "now it is just like all the other horses" (780). The unicorn is no longer an outcast. This in a way reflects Laura herself and the fact that she is crippled. After talking with Jim, Laura becomes more confident and comfortable with her disability. Reading inbetween the lines, Laura is using the unicorn's loss of the horn as her own loss of feeling different from others. Jim makes her feel ordinary and similar to the common people.

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Posted by: madison grabow at October 3, 2012 04:14 PM

Shyenne Price
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
October 3, 2012

Question: “In Scene Five, Tom gives his mother two realistic warnings to counter Amanda’s pleasant fantasy of the gentlemen caller. What are these warnings? How does Amanda react to them? Explain with cited, direct quotations directly from the text.”

Answer: Tom basically tells his mother not to get too excited about Jim coming over for dinner the following day. In scene 5, lines 69-70, Tom said “Lost of fellows meet girls whom they do not marry!” He gives two explicit reasons for it to be more difficult for Jim to like his sister “…She’s terribly shy and lives in a world of her own and those things make her seem peculiar to people outside the house.” (Williams, V, 95-98) Shortly after saying that he is going to out to the movies, Amanda calls Laura out from the kitchen to make a wish on the moon for “Happiness, Good Fortune!” (Williams, V, 40-41) It feels as though Amanda knows that Tom is right in saying Laura is a little bit of an odd ball and is praying that this will be the lucky man that can take care of her.

Posted by: Shyenne Price at October 3, 2012 05:34 PM

Timothy Delay
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
10, September 4, 2012
Question: 5) What does Laura do when she is sitting alone, playing with her glass collection and then becomes aware of Amanda arriving home? Explain with cited, direct quotations directly from the text.

Answers: Laura is sitting in a chair and is washing and polishing her glass figurines. When Amanda show up Laura “catches her breath, thrusts the bowl of ornaments away and seats herself stiffly before the diagram of the typewriter keyboard as though it held her spellbound” (7). This is for her to keep the illusion that she still is doing work from her school, and to keep her mom in the dark that she has drop out of the school.

Posted by: Timothy Delay at October 4, 2012 03:06 PM

Summer Taylor and De’Nisha Butler
Dr.Hobbs
ENG311 CA05
October 3, 2012

Question: Why is Amanda especially angry at Tom’s drinking?

Answer: Amanda is especially angry at Tom for his drinking because his drinking reminds her of her husband, Tom’s father. “Amanda: Oh, I can see the handwriting on the wall as plain as I see the nose in front of my face! It’s terrifying! More and more you remind me of your father! He was out all hours without explanation!-Then left Goodbye!”(Line 64-68). Amanda seems to be heavily depended on Tom financially and also doesn’t want him to leave Laura by herself because she would fall apart if she does. Amanda doesn’t want Tom to leave until Laura has found a mate.

Page 763

Posted by: De'Nisha Butler at October 4, 2012 07:35 PM

De’Nisha Butler
Dr.Hobbs
ENG311 CA05
October 3, 2012

Question: In Scenes Four and Five, Tom displays an attitude toward his mother that he has not shown before. Describe that attitude, and find the lines of dialogue that reveal it. Cite two lines of dialogue that show that Amanda is also trying to behave differently toward Tom. Use cited direct quotations directly from the text?

Answer: In Scenes Four and Five, Tom is more gently when conversing and carrying out dialogue with his mother. In scene three, Tom was very disrespectful and vents about his frustrations with his job and home life. However, in scene four Tom and Laura seem to get along more as they talk about Laura, and seem to end the ongoing rivalry between them. “Mother I-I apologize” (Williams 762: Line 6) after this line Tom seems more gentle and soft when interacting and holding conversation with Amanda. Tom’s attitude in season four and five has moved from nasty and disagreeable to calm and empathetic. Amanda shows a softer side to her, explaining why she acts the way she does towards Tom. “I’ve had to put up a solitary battle all these years. But you’re my right-hand bower! Don’t fall down, don’t fail!” says Amanda. This shows Tom that all her nagging and complaining is only because he is all she has to lean on and he in return becomes a little more understanding and tries to do as much as he can to please her. One way he tried to satisfy his mother is in Scene 5, by asking a gentleman caller to the house for Laura.

Posted by: De'Nisha Butler at October 4, 2012 08:36 PM

Kasey McDearis
Dr. Hobbs
ENG311 CA05
5 October 2012

Question: Amanda is a complex character: not easily described as either "good" or "bad". What aspect of her character do you see in Scenes Five and Six? Do you feel sympathetic toward her? Justify those things with cited, direct quotations directly from the text.

Answer: As I read this play, i discovered that yes, Amanda is complex. But, she has good intentions when it may come off as bad intentions. She speaks on line 61 on page 767 "Then he has visions of being advanced in the world! Any young man who studies public speaking is aiming to have an executive job some day! And the radio engineering? A thing for the future! Both of these facts are very illuminating. Those are the sort of things that a mother should know concerning any young man who comes to call on her daughter. Seriously or -not." She comes off as very forward, and can be intimidating, but she is looking for the perfect man for her daughter. Her children seem to just find her over bearing, so I do feel sympathy for her.

Posted by: Kasey McDearis at October 4, 2012 09:38 PM

Leah Hollingsworth
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
4 October 2012

Homework Question 9: In most plays, suspense is preferable to surprise. If a person reaches the top of a hill and looks down to see two trains at the moment they crash, it is a surprise and it is shocking. But dramatically, it would be more effective if, as the person neared the top of the hill, he saw the trains approaching each other on the same track from perhaps a mile apart. This would be suspense. How has Tennessee Williams used suspense in the play up to now? Explain with cited, direct quotations directly from the text.

Answer: The playwright has used suspense by introducing the idea of a gentleman caller early on. Tom says “I am the narrator of the play, and also a character in it. The other characters are my mother Amanda, my sister Laura and a gentleman caller who appears in the final scenes” (Williams 400). He begins to build on this idea of a gentleman caller. “After the fiasco at Rubicam's Business College, the idea of getting a gentleman caller for Laura began to play a more and more important part in Mother's calculations. It became an obsession. Like some archetype of the universal unconscious, the image of the gentleman caller haunted our small apartment” (Williams 410). We become fixated on this idea; so that when a gentleman caller actually comes we are interested in knowing how it will work out. Tom’s unhappiness is also built up throughout the play. “I go to the movies because - I like adventure. Adventure is something I don't have much of at work, so I go to the movies” (Williams 421). He constantly leaves the house. We wonder if he will ever come back. This is also a form of suspense.
Page numbers were taken from the printed version in “Tennessee Williams: Plays 1937-1955.”

Posted by: Leah Hollingsworth at October 5, 2012 12:01 AM

Sarah Winans
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
5 October 2012

Question: What does Tom mean at the end when he talks about Laura blowing out her candles? Explain with cited, direct quotations directly from the text.

Answer: I think that Tom means that he knows Laura will never find someone to take care of her and the hope for finding someone is lost, and this means that Tom needs to always be there for her. Tom states, "Oh Laura, Laura, I tried to leave you behind me but I am more faithful than I intended to be!" (Scene 7 page 784). He wanted to move on with his own life after finding someone for Laura, but now he cannot because he must take care of her.

Posted by: Sarah Winans at October 5, 2012 12:34 PM

Summer Taylor
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
5 October 2012

Question: 6) How does Amanda transform herself for the gentleman caller? How is her attitude about their guest different from Laura's? Explain
with cited, direct quotations directly from the text.

Answer: Amanda is much more excited about the gentleman than her daughter Laura is and it shows in the amount of time each woman took in preperation for the caller. "AMANDA has worked like a Turk in preperation for the gentleman caller. The results are astonishing. The new floor lamp with its rose silk-shade is in place, a colored paper latern concels the broken light-fixture in the celing, new billowing white curtains are at the windows, chintz covers are on chairs and sofa, a pair of new sofa pillows make their initinal appearance" (Williams 769). Later on Amanda also gets dressed up in her old dress that she used to wear when she was entertaining gentleman callers. Laura on the other hand does not appear to be happy about having the caller come and her mother actually helps her get ready. "Laura: Mother, what are you doing? AMANDA: They call the 'Gay Deceivers!' LAURA: I won't wear them! AMANDA: You will! LAURA: Why should I? AMANDA: Because, to be painfully honest, your chest is flat" (Williams 769).

Posted by: Summer Taylor at October 5, 2012 12:40 PM

Joe May and Denisha Butler
Dr. Hobbs
ENG-311 CA06
5 October 2012

Group 2 Question 2
2. Who is right, Amanda or Tom in their discussion of Laura?
In our opinion Tom is right with their discussion of Laura. Even though they have been attempting to find a man for Laura, and Tom has succeded in doing so the fact is Laura is not normal. She is crippled, she is socially odd/awkaward and she can be shy. Tom says "shes terribly shy and lives in a world of her own and those things make her seem a little peculiarto people outside the house. Page 767 "she lives in a world of her own filled with little glass ornaments. Page 768

2a. What does Amandas concern for the moon and wishing on it tell us about her?
" No I dont have secrets ill tell you what i wished for on the moon. Success and happiness for my precious children! I wish for that whenevers theres a moon and when there isnt a moon I wish for it too." Amanda enjoys eishing on the moon for the sake of her childern. As most parents do she only wants the best for her kids.

Posted by: Joe May at October 5, 2012 02:50 PM

Summer Taylor and Shaina McSweeney
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
October 5, 2012

Question: 4) What's the point of Amanda's near-monologue about her past?

Answer: Amanda is trying to make it a point to her daughter that she needs to put more effort into trying to talk to men. Amanda would let nothing get in the way of her ambitions, unlike her daughter, even when she was sick she still went out. "Stay in bed," said mother, "you have a fever!'- but I just wouldn't" (Williams 770).

Question: 4) What's the point of having the gentleman caller be someone Laura knew in the past? What does this add to the situation?

Answer: The point of having the caller be someone that Laura knew in the past was that it put more pressure on her and that Laura had previously liked that specific man before. "In playing this scene it should be stressed that while the incident is apparently unimportant, it is to LAURA the climax of her secret life" (Williams 775). Laura knows that this man had been previously been engaged and that he had a job, unlike her, so that there is a lot to live up to. She hasn't been doing anything and she may feel nervous about this fact.

Posted by: Summer Taylor and Shaina McSweeney at October 5, 2012 02:58 PM

Sarah Winans and Leah Hollingsworth
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
5 October 2012

Question: How accurate is Jim's analysis of Laura's problems? How do you judge Jim as he is saying all this? Is he cruel? Understanding? does the tone of his remarks tell us anything about him? Explain.

Answer: Although Jim has an accurate analysis of Laura's problems, we think that he thinks very highly of himself and is probably analyzing Laura too much. At one point when Laura is talking about being self-conscious about her brace, Jim states, " You think of yourself as having the only
problems, as being the only one who is disappointed. But just look around you and you will see lots of people as
disappointed as you are" (page 782 scene 7).

Question: What's the significance of the glass menagerie and in particular the unicorn? What is the significance of the unicorn losing its horn? Explain.

Answer: The significance of the glass menagerie shows how breakable Laura is, and the significance of the unicorn represents an average person that has flaws, but that is alright because that's what makes them fit in. After Jim breaks the horn making the unicorn into a "regular" horse, Laura and Jim converse and she states, "I'll just imagine he had an operation. The horn was removed to make him feel less - freakish! Now he will feel more at home with the other horses, the ones that don't have horns" (Scene 7). This almost seems as if Laura is more content with herself and accepts her disabilities.

Posted by: Sarah Winans Leah Hollingsworth at October 5, 2012 02:58 PM

Sherman Milton & Wolly Mendez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311: Survey of Major 20th century Writers

#8 part 1:
Question: Is Jim leading her on, or does he experience sincere feelings? How do you know?
Answer: Yes, Jim is leading her on and she starts to fall for him. Jim does multiple things throughout the play that gives off the impression that he really cares about her, but then he states “As I was just explaining, I’ve got stings on me” (34).

Question: Look at Amanda’s statement to Tom about his living in a dream. Would this apply to her too? How so?
Answer: At this point, Amanda is upset with Tom because he hurt Laura. She expected Tom to know more about him being that they worked together. She felt that he was living in a dream because he wasn’t focused on his family at all and it was all about him. She is also living in a dream because she expects him to support them financially and not live his life. He wants to be a poet not a match maker for his sister (35).

Posted by: Sherman Milton at October 5, 2012 03:02 PM

Shyenne Price & Joseph Lontrato
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
October 5, 2012

Question: “What does it tell us about Amanda that as soon as she hears there is to be a gentleman caller she starts to quiz Tom about whether he drinks, what his nationality is, etc.? Explain.”

Answer: Amanda expects that the suitor Tom has set up for her daughter to be a clean polished man. Amanda also wants her daughter to be taken care of and not have to struggle through her adulthood like her mother is. “The last thing I want for my daughter’s a boy who drinks!” (Williams, V lines 57-59)

Posted by: Shyenne Price & Joseph Lontrato at October 5, 2012 03:04 PM

Sherman Milton & Wolly Mendez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311: Survey of Major 20th century Writers

#8 part 1:
Question: Is Jim leading her on, or does he experience sincere feelings? How do you know?
Answer: Yes, Jim is leading her on and she starts to fall for him. Jim does multiple things throughout the play that gives off the impression that he really cares about her, but then he states “As I was just explaining, I’ve got stings on me” (34).

Question: Look at Amanda’s statement to Tom about his living in a dream. Would this apply to her too? How so?
Answer: At this point, Amanda is upset with Tom because he hurt Laura. She expected Tom to know more about him being that they worked together. She felt that he was living in a dream because he wasn’t focused on his family at all and it was all about him. She is also living in a dream because she expects him to support them financially and not live his life. He wants to be a poet not a match maker for his sister (35).

Posted by: Wollinsky Mendez at October 5, 2012 03:05 PM

Bryan Baldwin and Kasey McDearis
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
05 October 2012

Question 5: "What do you suppose our reaction as an audience is supposed to be when we see Amanda come out in her old southern dress with all her southern charm? Are we supposed to laugh at her, sympathize with her, or what?"

We should laugh, it is clear that she is trying to put on a show for Jim. "“Well, well, well, so this is Mr. O’Connor. Introductions entirely unnecessary. I’ve heard so much about you from my boy. I finally said to him, Tom-good gracious!- why don’t you bring this paragon to supper? I’d like to meet this nice young man at the warehouse!- Instead of just hearing him sing your praises so much!” (Williams, 773, Scene 6, Line 30-36) It all seems overplayed and overly dramatic.

Question 6: "are we prepared for Laura's reaction of getting sick, not being able to answer the door at all, etc?"

Answer: Yes, it states on line 55 of page 770 "There was a Jim O'Connor we both knew in high school, if that is one that Tom is bringing to dinner- you'll have to excuse me, I won't come to the table." from this quote we are already prepared for Laura to make up an excuse of getting sick and not to answer the door, or come to the table to eat dinner with them. She did not feel comfortable knowing that that man coming to dinner could have possibly been the man "she loved" in school.

Posted by: Bryan Baldwin and Kasey McDearis at October 5, 2012 03:07 PM

Shyenne Price & Joseph Lontrato
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
October 5, 2012

Question: “How much time has passed between the pervious scenes and this scene? What’s the purpose of this time skip? Explain.”

Answer: A few months have passed since the scenes. In the description Williams gives in beginning scene V he says “It is early dusk of a spring evening.” I believe the purpose of the season change is to show a new beginning within the family. After the fight between Tom and Amanda I feel the author is trying to reconcile their relationship.

Posted by: Shyenne Price & Joseph Lontrato at October 5, 2012 03:07 PM

Jason Anderson /Marcus Chisholm
Dr.Hobbs
ENG311 CA05
The Glass Menagerie
Question3

Question part1: The family is doing everything to make Laura more beautiful and attractive; thus hoping that the gentleman caller will become interested and eventually marry her. They also make the apartment look better and therefore appear more affluent then they actually are. (Scene 6, p.51) They are obviously poor and this shows their desperation for an escape from poverty through marriage.

Question part2: The significance is that she is actually not as pretty as portrayed. Her radiance or beauty is momentary and not lasting. She is also easily breakable like glass. Her emotions are easily shattered; as seen at the end when she learns that Jim is dating another girl named Betty. She is shattered much like glass. (Scene 9, p.91)

Posted by: Jason/ Marcus at October 5, 2012 03:13 PM

Timothy Delay
Madison Grabow
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
10, October 5, 2012
Questions: Is it plausible that someone so painfully shy can actually get involved as she does with Jim in this scene? If you think so, consider the elements that make it plausible.

What is the significance of Jim’s old name for Laura- “Blue Roses”?

Answers: Yes it is plausible that Laura could get involved with Jim even though she is painfully shy. Something’s that make it plausible is the fact that they have a history together. Jim states this history by recalling her by her nickname of Blue Roses “ Jim Aw, yes I’ve placed you know! I used to call you Blue Roses.” (Scene 7, pg 29, Line 45)

The significance of Jim’s old name for Laura is it gave made her feel that she had someone and was not alone in the school. Laura nickname is more of a badge of honor. This can be witness when Laura says, “Oh, no- I liked it you see, I wasn’t acquainted with many –people” (Scene 7, pg29, Line 55).

Posted by: Timothy Delay at October 5, 2012 03:18 PM

Madison Grabow
Hobbs
ENG 311 Survey of Major 20th Century Writers
5 October 2012

HW Quotation 4: "Girls that aren't cut out for business careers usually wind up married to some nice man."

Answer: This quotation appears in Act 1/Scene II/Line 73-74/Page 757.
The character speaking is Amanda.
The character who is being spoken to is Laura.
The context of this quotation is the timing after Amanda becomes aware that Laura is no longer attending college. Amanda (thinking of the future of Laura) becomes worried and says that since she is not the kind of girl to attend college she needs a man to fulfill her life. Amanda is basically saying that it is either college or a man. Since Laura has skipped college, it is time for the man.

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Posted by: madison grabow at October 5, 2012 04:24 PM

Shyenne Price
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
October 5, 2012

Quotation: “Oh, [___], [___]. I tried to leave you behind me, but I am more faithful than I intended to be!”

Answers:
This quotation appears in Act I/ Scene VII/ Lines 77-79/ Page 784/
The character speaking is: Tom
The character who is being spoken to is: Laura
The context of this quotation is (what are the events surrounding this dialogue and what does it mean – what are the speakers talking about?): Tom is talking about how since he has left home he has not been able to forget about his sister, Laura.

Posted by: Shyenne Price at October 5, 2012 04:43 PM

De’Nisha Butler
Dr.Hobbs
ENG311 CA05
October 6, 2012

Question: “She lives in a world of her own-a world of little glass ornaments.”

Answer: The quotation appears in Act I/Scene V/Line 8-9/Page 768.

The Character speaking is: Tom.
The Character who is being spoken to is: Amanda
The context of this quotation is (Tom and Amanda are having a conversation about Amanda. Tom is that Laura is overtly shy but still somewhat perfect in their eyes but to everyone else she is peculiar and odd. Tom is trying to explain to Amanda in which way he sees Laura as peculiar.

Posted by: De'Nisha Butler at October 6, 2012 07:28 PM

Leah Hollingsworth
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
6 October 2012

Homework Question 13: People are not so dreadful when you know them.

Answer: This quotation appears in Scene 7/Page 451. The character speaking is Jim. The character who is being spoken to is Laura. The context of this quotation is a conversation between Jim and Laura during which Jim psychoanalyzes Laura. He is telling her that her problem with shyness is due to fear and isolation.
Page numbers were taken from the printed version in “Tennessee Williams: Plays 1937-1955.”

Posted by: Leah Hollingsworth at October 6, 2012 08:39 PM

Timothy Delay
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
10, October 7, 2012
Question: 17. “Go, then! Go to the moon-you selfish dreamer!”

Answers: This quotation appears in Act__2__ / Scene ____8____ / Line ____25_____ / Page ________36__
• The character speaking is: ______Amanda_______

• The character who is being spoken to is: _______Tom_______

• The context of this quotation is (what are the events surrounding this dialogue and what does it mean—what are the speakers talking about?):___Tom is leaving Amanda and Laura for good after they find out that Jim is going to be married and are very upset with him over this. Amanda is tired of Tom leaving them to go to the “moves” that she just wants him gone if he is not going to help her find a suitor for Laura.

Posted by: Timothy Delay at October 7, 2012 10:10 AM

Jason Anderson
Dr.Hobbs
ENG311 CA05
The Glass Menagerie Quotations

Quote: "In memory, everything seems to happen to music."
Answer: This quotation appears in Act 1/Scene 1/Line 8/Page 753
The character speaking is Tom.
The character is speaking to the audience.
The context is Tom as narrator is describing the play as being in flashback, as being his memory. Music he says is common in memory; thus the play makes use of music to describe the emotions of the characters, much like you would find in memory.

Posted by: Jason Anderson at October 8, 2012 09:05 AM

Summer Taylor
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
October 8, 2012

Questions for the quote 12) “All pretty girls are a trap, a pretty trap, and men expect them to be.”

This quotation appears in: Act, Scene, Line,Page
• The character speaking is:
• The character who is being spoken to is:
• The context of this quotation is (what are the events surrounding this dialogue and what does it mean—what are the speakers talking

Answers: This quotation appears in: Act I, Scene,VI Line 50,Page 21
• The character speaking is: Amanda
• The character who is being spoken to is: Laura
• The context of this quotation is (what are the events surrounding this dialogue and what does it mean—what are the speakers talking.-- The two women are getting ready for the caller and Amanda wants Laura to stuff her bra, but Laura doesn't want to because she said that it is decieving. Amanda says the above quote to explain to her daughter that all pretty girls are not completely naturally like that, they use other things like stuffing their bra or putting on makeup to make them look pretty. Amanda also explains that men expect woman to decieve them, or "trap" them, in this aspect of making themselves look more appealing.

Posted by: Summer Taylor at October 8, 2012 11:43 AM

Wollinsky Mendez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
October 8, 2012

Question:A play is put in motion by some element that upsets the situation at the beginning of the story. The element that sets this play in motion
arrives in Scene Two. What is it? How does it upset the opening situation, and how does it set the play in motion?

Answer: When Amanda finds out that Laura has not been going to school but has been walking around the park. She dropped out of school a while ago and hasn't been doing much with her life. Amanda finds that the only way to move forward is to find Laura a husband. "? We won't have a business career - we've given that up because it gave us nervous indigestion ! [Laughs wearily.] What is there left but dependency all our lives? I know so well what becomes of unmarried women who aren't prepared to occupy a position. I've seen such pitiful cases in the South - barely tolerated spinsters living upon the grudging patronage of sister's husband or brother's wife ! - stuck away in some little mousetrap of a room - encouraged by one in-law to visit another - little birdlike women without any nest - eating the crust of humility all their life !
Is that the future that we've mapped out for ourselves? I swear it's the only alternative I can think of !
It isn't a very pleasant alternative, is it? Of course - some girls do marry!"(9) This makes the focus of the play getting Laura a gentlemen caller.

Posted by: Wollinsky Mendez at October 8, 2012 12:06 PM

Marcus Chisholm
Dr. Hobbs
ENG-311-CA05
8 October 2012

4. "Girls that arent cut out for business careers usually wind up married to some nice man."
This quotation appears in Act 1/Scene 1. The character speaking is Amanda. The character speaking spoken to is Laura. Amanda says that since Laura is socially awkward and doesn't handle well around crowds of people, she should just find a nice man to marry and settle down with.

Posted by: Marcus Chisholm at October 8, 2012 02:04 PM

Sarah Winans
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
8 October 2012

Question: "Man is by instinct a lover, a hunter, a fighter, and none of those instincts are given much play at a warehouse!"

Answer: -This quotation appears in Act 1 Scene 3 Line 60 Page 760
-The character speaking is: Tom
-The character being spoken to is: Amanda
-The context of this quotation is Tom wanting to get out of his current job and being frustrated with his current lifestyle.

Posted by: Sarah Winans at October 8, 2012 03:48 PM

Kasey McDearis
Dr. Hobbs
ENG311 CA05
7 October 2012
#16: “All pretty girls are a trap, a pretty trap, and men expect them to be.”
The Quotation appears in Act 2/ Scene 5/ Line 50/ Page 769
The character speaking is Amanda.
The character who is being spoken to is Laura.
The context of this quotation is that Amanda is telling Laura that women need to live up to the standards of men, that when a man sees a pretty girl, they have certain expectations of them. Also, that women are to be beautiful and appealing to men, and that is what men look for. She tells her that she needs to dress nice, and act like a lady. That she needs to become more social around potential suitors.

Posted by: Kasey McDearis at October 8, 2012 04:20 PM

-----------------


*NOTE* The deadline for this particular assignment has now passed. Any comments listed below are *ONLY* for the reposting of comments that I specifically asked to be revised or are ones from non-student posters. Any 'student' posts below that missed the assignment deadline will not get credit for the assignment.


~ Dr. Hobbs

Posted by: Dr. Hobbs at October 9, 2012 10:47 AM

Wollinsky Mendez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
December 3, 2012

Quesiton: What happens to make you think at first that Jim O’Connor’s visit may work out as Amanda hopes? Explain how the evening ends
in disappointment for Laura and Amanda. Explain with cited, direct quotations directly from the text.

Answer: In the end of the visit, Jim leads Amanda on by complimenting her and starts to make a connection with her. She begins to trust Jim and opens up to him by telling him about her glass menagerie. Then Jim kisses Laura."He suddenly turns her about and kisses her on the lips.
When he releases her, LAURA sinks on the sofa with a bright, dazed look.
J IM backs away and fishes in his pocket for a cigarette." (Williams, 33) They find out that Jim has a girl he is going steady with and that their efforts were in vein. Amanda blames Laura's brother, Tom, for not telling them. He did not know and ends up leaving them because of this fight. " All right, I 'will ! The more you shout about my selfishness to me the quicker I'll go, and I won't go to the movies !"(Williams, 36)

Posted by: Wollinsky Mendez at December 3, 2012 10:49 PM

Wollinsky Mendez
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
December 3, 2012

Question: “Time is the longest distance between two places."

Answer: This quote appears in scene VII on page 36. This is when Tom left the house. After Jim came over and Amanda fought with him, he left both of them. " I descended the step of this fire-escape for a last time and followed, from then on, in my father's footsteps, attempting to find in motion what was lost in space - I travelled around a great deal. The cities swept about me like dead leaves, leaves that were brightly coloured but tom away from the branches." (Williams, 36)

Posted by: Wollinsky Mendez at December 3, 2012 10:59 PM

Shaina McSweeney
Dr. Hobbs
ENG311CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
10. In Scene Two, Amanda is in conflict with Laura. Who is in conflict in Scene Three? What starts the conflict, and what is it about?
Amanda is in conflict with Tom since her plan for Laura's education has fallen through. She is unhappy with what she believes is Tom's dissolute lifestyle and he expresses his being disgruntled that he has no privacy. Amanda has sent back his “DH Lawrence book” back to the library and generally tries to make him the man she hoped his father would be (Act 3, Pg. 759, Line 4). It is not working and they end up angry and Tom walks away.

Posted by: Shaina McSweeney at December 5, 2012 02:36 AM

Shaina McSweeney
Dr. Hobbs
ENG311CA05 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers
Quote: “Look! I’ve got nothing, no single thing…in my life that I can call my OWN!
This quotation appears in Scene 3 Line 89 Page 758
The character speaking is Tom.
The character being spoken to is Amanda
The context of the quotation: Tom is angry with his mother for returning his books to the library. He feels as if he has nothing that belongs to him specifically.

Posted by: Shaina McSweeney at December 5, 2012 02:45 AM

Delia Mulvihill, Bryan Baldwin, Kasey McDearis
Dr. Hobbs
The Glass Menagerie: Scenes 1-4
In Class Discussion: Group #1

Q8: What’s the point of Tom’s making up the stories about himself?

A: The point of Tom’s made up stories about himself is that he is upset with his mother because she wants to know where he goes at night when he says he is going to the movies because she doesn’t believe him. He says all of these things to annoy his mother and show her how ridiculous she is being.

“(Crouching toward her, overtowering her tiny figure. She backs away, gasping) I’m going to opium dens! Yes, opium dens, dens of vice and criminals’ hang-outs, Mother I’ve joined the Hogan gang, I’m a hired assassin, I carry a tommy-gun in a violin case! I run a string of cat-houses in the Valley! They call me Killer, Killer Wingfield, I’m leading a double-life, a simple, honest warehouse worker by day, by night a dynamic czar of the underworld Mother. I go to gambling casinos, I spin away fortunes on the roulette table! I wear a patch over one eye and a false mustache, sometimes I put on green whiskers. On those occasions they call me – El Diablo! Oh, I could tell you things to make you sleepless! My enemies plan to dynamite this place. They’re going to blow us all sky-high some night! I’ll be glad, very happy, and so will you! You’ll go up, up on a broomstick, over Blue Mountain with seventeen gentlemen callers! You ugly-babbling old-witch” (Scene 4 Lines 87-16, Page 760)

Posted by: Delia Mulvihill at December 5, 2012 11:45 AM

Joe May
9. Few people have Laura's specific physical handicap. Do you think most people can identify with her? Why or why not? I believe that even though few people have Lauras specific handicap they can relate with her. Many women have problems finding a man and being comfortable around them. She has things that she loves that make her life more enjoyable and worth living which many people arent lucky enough to have.

Posted by: Joe May at December 5, 2012 12:42 PM

Joe May

10) Amanda is a complex character: not easily described as either "good" or "bad." What aspect of her character do you see in
Scenes Five and Six? Do you feel sympathetic toward her? Justify those feelings with cited, direct quotations directly from the text.

Amanda throughout the Glass Menagerie is somewhat of a neutral party. In my opinion she is the glue that is trying to hold whats left of their family together, but she does have her flaws. I do feel sympathetic for her because it appears she is the only strong one trying to maintain a family between her brother, mother and sister.

Posted by: Joe May at December 5, 2012 12:45 PM

Joe May

7. “What right have you got to jeopardize
your job? Jeopardize the security of us all? How do you think we’d manage if you were—”

Amanda is speaking to Tom about his want to leave his job at the factory. Tom is unhappy and wants to make something of himself, but the reality is that if he quits there will be more financial struggle but if he stays there will be more conflict with Amanda.

Posted by: Joe May at December 5, 2012 12:50 PM

Sarah Winans
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 311 Survey of Major Twentieth Century Writers CA05
1 December 2012
Family Function
Family is defined in many different ways. For some, family represents love and support, while for others, family is a word used to describe a blood-related relative. People do not choose the families that they are born into; therefore, these blood-related relatives are hardly ever referred to as “family,” because of the value the word holds. For some, families are created through friendships, love, and protection they feel for another person. Ultimately, family is defined as two or more people who share a common feeling of love and protection for one another. They may not always get along and most likely have differing viewpoints; however, they support one another’s well-being. Family function is how a group of two or more people work together to be and stay all that a family entails. In The Glass Menagerie (1945), written by Tennessee Williams (1911-1983), and Death of a Salesman (1949), written by Arthur Miller (1915-2005), evidence will be provided to show the families function by focusing on the three points of best interests, trying to get along, and support of accomplishing goals.
To begin with, family members always keep one another’s best interests in mind. In The Glass Menagerie, Tom is constantly trying to find Laura a gentleman caller. One can tell that he worries for his sister’s well-being when he states, “Oh, Laura, Laura, I tried to leave you behind me, but I am more faithful than I intended to be!” (Williams). Although Tom knows he needs to move on with his life, he is still very upset for Laura. He tried to find her a solid gentleman caller in Jim, but had no luck as Jim was already with someone. Tom worries that Laura will be alone, and therefore continues his search for a gentleman caller. In Death of a Salesman, Biff displays acts of looking out for Willy’s best interests by lying to him about the Florida plan. Biff states, “Pop, listen! Listen to me! I’m telling you something good. Oliver talked to his partner about the Florida idea. You listening? He — he talked to his partner, and he came to me... I’m going to be all right, you hear? Dad, listen to me, he said it was just a question of the amount!” (Miller). Biff knows that Willy would be extremely upset to hear that he is not having luck getting a job. He wants to avoid upsetting his father, leading to this lie. Both Tom and Biff look out for their families when Tom attempts to find Laura a gentleman caller, and when Biff spares Willy’s disappointment. However, Biff lies while Tom is honest with his feelings.
Next, families do not always get along. In The Glass Menagerie, Tom and Amanda argue for a large section of the play about Tom’s actions such as “going to the movies.” Tom gets irritated with Amanda easily, and Amanda finally says, “I mean that as soon as Laura has got somebody to take care of her, married, a home of her own, independent ?- why, then you'll be free to go wherever you please, on land, on sea, whichever way the wind blows you! But until that time you've got to look out for your sister” (Williams). Amanda does not necessarily support what Tom does, but rather wants him to help Laura; then she does not care what he does with his life. In Death of a Salesman, Happy is in desperate need of Willy’s attention. It is obvious that he feels he lives in Biff’s shadow when Willy and Biff are talking about the big football game and Happy states, “I’m losing weight, you notice, Pop?” (Miller). Happy is longing for his father’s attention, and the reader knows he feels second to Biff. The difference between these family functions is that Amanda does not care what Tom does with his life, but Happy would love for Biff to become more involved in his. They are similar because each family has frustrations toward the members.
Finally, families function by supporting one another’s goals. In The Glass Menagerie, Amanda was initially proud of Laura for going to school. When she received news of her dropping out, Amanda was very angry and states, “Fifty dollars' tuition, all of our plans - my hopes and ambition for you - just gone up the spout, just gone up the spout like that” (Williams). Amanda has obvious concerns for Laura’s success, and she is angry that she spent her money on a wasted education. In Death of a Salesman, Willy was so hopeful for a bright football career, and he was extremely disappointed when he learned that Biff flunked out of math and would not be able to move on to college. He states, “If you hadn’t flunked you’d’ve been set by now!” (Miller). Although he seems to be stuck in the past, Willy obviously is upset that Biff did not attain his dream of becoming a professional football player. Both Amanda and Willy share disappointment when their children do not succeed in attaining their goals. However, it seems that Amanda is trying to push Laura to have no regret while, Willy is stagnant and stuck on memories from the past.
In conclusion, The Glass Menagerie, and Death of a Salesman, both have strong themes of the sense of family function through best interests, not always getting along, and support of accomplishing goals even though they had differing intentions. Family—being defined as two or more people who share a common feeling of love and protection for one another—was shown throughout both stories, although each character had his or her own ways of showing it. Families do not always get along, and that is why function refers to two or more people working together to maintain family values. Referring to someone as family is a strong statement, and one that is used for those who truly matter in one’s life.

Works Cited
Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. Amazonws.com. 1949.
Williams, Tennessee. The Glass Menagerie. Staff.bcc.edu. 1944.

Posted by: Sarah Winans at December 5, 2012 04:11 PM

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