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January 30, 2012

Socio-Political Lens: Gender Identity / Feminism


Image Source: http://www.freewebs.com/thelark06/Feminism1.jpg

Tyson, Lois. Critical Theory Today: A User-Friendly Guide. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2006. ISBN: 0415974100.
[This is your textbook about critical theory as applied to literature].

Rivkin, Julie and Michael Ryan, eds. Literary Theory: An Anthology. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2004. ISBN: 1405106964.
[This is your collection of primary sources about literary theory as written by the pioneers and theorists who helped develop them. Use these as your primary sources for your papers].

Lynn, Steven. Texts and Contexts: Writing about Literature with Critical Theory. 5th ed. New York: Pearson, 2008. ISBN: 032144907X.
[Recommended but not required--Very easy to read! Please order this from Interlibrary Loan in our Library if the price is too hefty].


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ENG 435 Students of 2009,

In this entry, you will be entering:

[1] Your two self-designed reading-response questions (short answer) based on the "overview" summaries of this theory you were assigned from various textbooks. Due in the comment box here AND in the appropriate folder on turnitin.com on the day BEFORE the class meeting they are to be used.

[2] Your two self-designed discussion questions (longer answer) based on the application of specific terminology from this particular theory toward the primary works we have read for this course. Due in the comment box here AND in the appropriate folder on turnitin.com on the day BEFORE the class meeting they are to be used.

[1] your precis of the article assigned to you from the Rivkin and Ryan anthology about this particular theory. Due in the comment box below, in the appropriate folder on turnitin.com, AND as a hardcopy in class according to the deadline listed on our itinerary (see syllabus). Be prepared to discuss your article with the rest of the class.

Good luck,

Dr. Hobbs

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For more English-Blog entries on the topic of Critical Theory, please click HERE.

Posted by lhobbs at January 30, 2012 04:11 PM

Readers' Comments:

Brittany Thunberg
Dr. Hobbs
Academic Writing II CA16
5 April 2009

Proposal: Connections to Feminism in “The Story of an Hour”

Mrs. Mallard in “The Story of an Hour,” is faced with the tragedy of her husband’s death. After Mrs. Mallard is informed that her husband has been killed in a freak train accident, the happiness within the Mallard’s marriage is immediately questioned by the reader. Mrs. Mallard’s reaction to her husband’s death is a little out of the ordinary, instead of being overcome with sadness; instead she is overcome with feelings of relief.
In Appendix B of Writing with Literature several different “Critical Approaches Important in the study of Literature” are discussed. Among these critical approaches is “Feminism.” Feminism is the approach that I plan on taking in my research paper to critically analyze Kate Chopin’s “The Story of an Hour.” Edgar V. Roberts in Writing about Literature explains that, “the feminine critical approach holds that most of our literature presents a masculine-patriarchal view in which the role of women is negated or at best minimized.”(187) “The Story of an Hour” is a perfect short story to analyze utilizing the critical approach of Feminism.


Works Cited
Chopin,Kate. “The Story of an Hour.”Writing about Literature by Edgar V. Roberts. Brief 11th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson 2006. 205-06.)
Roberts, Edgar V. Writing about Literature. Breif 11th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, NJ, 2005.

Posted by: brittany Thunberg at April 7, 2009 07:19 AM

Cecilia B
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 435
8th April 2009
1. As Tyson illustrates through popular fairy tales, patriarchal concepts of “good girls” and “bad girls” are mentioned (89). Name a few stereotypes Tyson claims are attributed to these characters.
- Good girls- gentle, submissive, virginal, angelic, beautiful, and sweet (89).
- Bad girls- violent, aggressive, worldly, and monstrous (89).

2. How is feminism, as Tyson describes it, a type of activism?
- Because all feminist activity, including feminist theory and literary criticism, has its ultimate goal to change the world by promoting women’s equality (92).

Posted by: Cecilia at April 7, 2009 03:37 PM

Liz H

Dr. Hobbs

ENG 435

April 7, 2009

Gender/Identity/Feminism:

Reading/Discussion Questions

1. According to Tyson, how are women oppressed by the patriarchy?

A. Women are oppressed economically, politically, socially, and psychologically (90).

2. While biology determines our _____; culture determines our _______ (Tyson 91).

A. -sex (making us physically different), -gender (masculine or feminine, refers to behavior) Discussion

Is Wizard of Oz a gender-oriented text? Can we argue feminism/gender/identity issues?

Posted by: Liz H at April 7, 2009 09:19 PM

Ava Littlefield
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 435
6 April 2009
Reading Check Questions on Feminism
1.How does the “habit of seeing” affect women with regards to medical prescriptions?
A.Typically prescription drugs are tested on male subjects. As a result some of the side effects that are recorded are different for women.
2.Define Feminist Criticism.
A.Criticism that examines the ways in which literature reinforces or undermines the economic, political, social, and psychological oppression of women.
3.How do traditional gender roles cast men and women differently?
A.Men are cast as rational, strong, protective and decisive. Women are cast as emotional, irrational, weak, nurturing, and submissive.
4.Explain the “good girls and bad girls” concept.
A.Good girls are referred to as females who conform to societal expectations (angelic, valuable, good mothers, wives, non-threatening).
B.Bad Girls are referred to as females who openly express themselves sexually, sllep around, and are forward.

Posted by: Ava at April 7, 2009 09:52 PM

Jessica P.
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 435
4/8/09

Feminist Criticism

Short Answer Question:

Q: How is Patriarchy defined (p 85)?

A: By definition, it means sexist, which essentially is the idea that woman are innately inferior to men.

Discussion Question: (p106)

Q: How has African American feminists been helpful in revealing that white culture feminists have neglected looking at political and theoretical differences that other cultures experience?

A: Black Feminists have shown that gender oppression sometimes cannot be understood apart from racial oppression. Thus, black women deal with oppression from being both feminist and black, causing different problems than white women experience.

Posted by: Jessica Pall at April 8, 2009 12:09 AM

What does Tyson mean by patriarchal woman? This is a woman who has internalized the norms and values of patriarchy.

What is biological essentialism? The idea that women are inferior because of biological sex differences.

What do the ends of Disney films seem to imply for feminism? A woman must me "awakened" by a man!

Posted by: Wesley J. at April 8, 2009 10:51 AM

Travis R
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 435
8 April 2009

Feminism Quiz Questions

Q: According to Tyson, why do some feminists dislike the use of the masculine pronoun he to represent both men and women? (Tyson 83)

A: For many, using the pronoun he to refer to both sexes perpetuates a male view of life, and, thus, perpetuates the male experience as a standard point of view for both sexes.

Q: What are a few of the major focuses of French Feminism? (Tyson 96)

A: French Feminism can be divided into two different forms: material feminism and psychoanalytic feminism. The first form concerns itself with the social and economic oppression of women while the second form concentrates on, of course, psychological experiences.

Posted by: Travis R at April 8, 2009 11:42 AM

Kristin Brittain
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 435
4/7/09
Feminism Questions
1. What is the patriarchal belief held by all feminist?
A. The patriarchal ideology works to keep women and men in traditional gender roles and thereby maintain male dominance (91). Women are oppressed by patriarchy economically, socially, and psychologically and patriarchy is the primary means to do so (92).
2. According to Tyson why wont feminist theory ever get stale?
A. Because one of feminism’s strength is its ability to borrow ideas and support from other theories. “It constantly incorporates new ideas from other fields and finds new ways to use old ideas” (94).

Posted by: Kristin B at April 8, 2009 12:09 PM

Sarah Tatko
Dr. Hobbs
Eng-435
8 April 2009
Feminist Reading Check
Q: Why do feminists have a problem with the pronoun “he”? (82)
A: Feminists have a problem with the pronoun “he” because it perpetuates the idea of looking at life through a male perspective which ignores the female experience.

Q: What is the difference between “sex” and “gender”?
A: Sex- is the biological differences of male and female
Gender – is cultural programming of feminine and masculine created by society

Posted by: Sarah T. at April 8, 2009 12:31 PM

Cecilia B
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 435
15th April 2009
Précis of Judith Butler’s “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution”
Judith Butler fervently discusses the issues of gender identity and cultural construction in her 1988 essay, “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution,” while centralizing her discussion on Feminist views. Butler provides a cogent argument stemming from Feminist theory that posits gender as a culturally constructed phenomenon. However, Butler extends this debate to sex as well, arguing, “the body bears cultural meanings” because it is understood as an entity “embodying certain cultural and historical possibilities” (901). Essentially, Butler claims that the body has become subject to the governing principles of gender. For example, to be female possesses no real meaning, but the body is thus “compelled to conform to the historical idea of ‘woman’” (902) thus inducing meaning. Consequently, Butler finds problem with Freud’s earlier postulations that Lesbians strive to imitate a masculine ideal (900). Butler finds similar false beliefs with contemporary media and technology that undermine the concept of the female ideal. Instead, Butler replies that even such proposed ‘masculine or feminine ideals’ are neurotic imitations that can no longer distinguish between what is original or affected. As a result, Butler explains this fixed misunderstanding does “limit, and, at times, eradicate the existence of women altogether” (909). Therefore, as Butler has set out to argue, gender is a ‘performative act’ put on under the constraints of society.
Work Cited
Butler, Judith. “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution.” 1988. Literary Theory:
An Anthology. 2nd ed. Eds. Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004. 900-911.

Posted by: Cecilia at April 12, 2009 12:41 AM

Sarah Tatko
Dr. Hobbs
Eng-435
15 April 2009
Imperialistic Feminism
In Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s 1986 essay, “Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialism”, she combines her common interests of post-colonialism, imperialism, and feminism to analyze Charlotte Bronte’s novel Jane Eyre. However, she does not solely focus on Bronte’s novel; she also includes Wide Sargasso Sea, and Frankenstein as a tool to help analyze the expansion of and “worlding” of Jane Eyre (Spivak 838-839).
Imperialism is defined as England’s social mission and it is a component to the English image (Spivak 838). Literature is a tool used in imperialism to help produce this cultural representation of England. To further deepen the examination, Spivak includes the role of feminism in combination with imperialism because literature cannot only be used to help expand one’s culture but the literary discipline itself.
As a way to help illustrate this concept Spivak explores the character of Bertha Mason within Bronte’s novel. She does this because Bertha is a good representation of imperialism and wipes away the line between human and animal; especially when it comes to the definition of a female. Spivak continues on by providing side-by-side comparisons of Jane Eyre and Wide Sargasso Sea as evidence to the influence of Bronte’s novel. Frankenstein does not provide a comparison but helps to demonstrate the outreaches of feminist imperialism has even though it is not displayed out rightly; it does lie underneath the surface.

Work Cited
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. “Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialsim.” Literary Theory: An Anthology. 2nd ed. Eds. Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004. 838-853.


Posted by: Sarah T. at April 14, 2009 08:22 PM

Liz H


Dr. Hobbs


ENG 435


April 14, 2009


Précis of “Age, Race, Class, and Sex: Women Redefining the Difference”


Audre Lorde’s essay entitled “Age, Race, Class, and Sex: Women Redefining the Difference” (1984) examines the differences of issues faced by women in America, specifically those that plague the African American community. Audre Lorde cites the fact that she has to constantly educate those around her regarding “her” experience as a lesbian black woman who defies stereotypes, but our world is one that has “institutionalized rejection of difference” (854).


Lorde argues that the real issues within the Feminist movement usually get lost in the over-simplification that if you are a woman, you automatically “get” or understand another woman’s experience. For Lorde, this is a fraudulent statement because one is ignoring the fact that differences do exist. Lorde highlights the reality that a white woman’s experience is profoundly different from that of a black woman in America. Lorde states that “as a tool of social control, women have been encouraged to recognize only one area of human difference as legitimate, those differences which exist between men and women” (859). Change, for Lorde, is incredibly important, but it should come by embracing one’s own identity not disowning it to fit in. Differences are to be celebrated.


Works Cited


Lorde, Audre. "Age, Race, Class, and Sex: Women Redefining the Difference." Literary
Theory: An Anthology. Eds. Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan. 2nd ed. Malden: Blackwell, 2004. 854-60.

Posted by: Liz H at April 14, 2009 10:32 PM

Kristin Brittain
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 435
4/12/09
Exploring the Closet
Epistemology of the Closet is a book written by Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick concerning gay and lesbian representations within literature. Sedgwick argues that sexuality and gender is not easily matched together in any specific manner. Sedgwick focuses on divide between heterosexuality and homosexuality. She suggests that this divide was created due to cultural pressures. “It makes every difference that these impactions of homo/heterosexual definition took place in a setting, not of spacious emotional or analytic impartiality, but rather of urgent homophobic pressure to devalue one of the two nominally symmetrical forms of choice” (913).
Sedgwick focuses on deconstruction in the theme of binary oppositions that create categories which mirror cultural situations. For instance the binary of heterosexual/homosexual reflects the cultural dichotomy of homosexuality being inferior to heterosexuality. Furthermore, Sedgwick delves into the blurred distinctions between sex, gender, and sexuality. “Sex, gender, sexuality: three terms whose usage relations and analytical relations are almost irremediably slippery” (915). She argues that people confuse sex, which is based on chromosomal difference and gender, which is based on cultural definitions but the two terms become convoluted by society’s word usage. Sexuality on the other hand is less easily defined; when sexuality is related to sex it is chromosomal based and is geared towards procreation with species survival in mind, and when it is geared towards gender sexuality becomes socially constructed and its emphasis is on “sexual object” choice.

Work Cited
Sedgwick, Eve. “Epistemology of the Closet.” Literary Theory: An Anthology 2nd Ed. Ed. Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 1998. 912-921.

Posted by: Kristin B at April 15, 2009 01:27 AM

Kristin Brittain
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 435
4/12/09
Exploring the Closet
Epistemology of the Closet is a book written by Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick concerning gay and lesbian representations within literature. Sedgwick argues that sexuality and gender is not easily matched together in any specific manner. Sedgwick focuses on divide between heterosexuality and homosexuality. She suggests that this divide was created due to cultural pressures. “It makes every difference that these impactions of homo/heterosexual definition took place in a setting, not of spacious emotional or analytic impartiality, but rather of urgent homophobic pressure to devalue one of the two nominally symmetrical forms of choice” (913).
Sedgwick focuses on deconstruction in the theme of binary oppositions that create categories which mirror cultural situations. For instance the binary of heterosexual/homosexual reflects the cultural dichotomy of homosexuality being inferior to heterosexuality. Furthermore, Sedgwick delves into the blurred distinctions between sex, gender, and sexuality. “Sex, gender, sexuality: three terms whose usage relations and analytical relations are almost irremediably slippery” (915). She argues that people confuse sex, which is based on chromosomal difference and gender, which is based on cultural definitions but the two terms become convoluted by society’s word usage. Sexuality on the other hand is less easily defined; when sexuality is related to sex it is chromosomal based and is geared towards procreation with species survival in mind, and when it is geared towards gender sexuality becomes socially constructed and its emphasis is on “sexual object” choice.
Work Cited
Sedgwick, Eve. “Epistemology of the Closet.” Literary Theory: An Anthology 2nd Ed. Ed. Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 1998. 912-921.

Posted by: kristin b at April 15, 2009 02:36 AM

Wesley Johnson
Hobbs
Eng 435
April 15,2009
Précis of Discourse Subordination
Philosopher Luce Irigaray’s article “The Power of Discourse and the Subordination of the Feminine” is basically a call for the destabilization of masculine language as the penultimate form of discourse. Initially, she posits that the reason for female subordination in discourse (and virtually all other aspects of the universe) is the notion of mimicry. That is, that females are simply attempting to mimic masculine behavior. She also notes that even within feminist ideology, attempts to break free from this tradition as women as subordinates within discourse occurs because women see themselves as “subjects” attempting to question this guide.
However, Irigary finds solace in the notion of mimesis. She notes that woman is the ultimate form of mimicry. It is through woman that one is born. Therefore, the natural progression is that woman produces mimicry. That is, the woman is the mimic making machine. So, to postulate that a woman is mimicry of male is falsity. The woman is the produces, male is the mimic. It is important to note however that Irigary is not calling for simply discoursive unity between woman and man. She is calling for unity in every aspect of life. Simply to break down the discourse barrier would serve as an ideological basis for the destruction of the male over female western metaphysical dichotomy, which is obviously false.
Work Cited
Irigaray, Luce “The Power of Discourse and the Subordination of the feminine.”1977 Literary Theory: An Anthology. 2nd Ed. Ed. Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004. 795-798.

Posted by: Wesley J at April 15, 2009 07:33 AM

Travis R
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 435
15 April 2009

Glimpsing at Freud Through a Feminist Lens: The Hand That Rocks the Cradle

In her essay, The Hand That Rocks the Cradle, Coppelia Kahn focuses on several aspects of Freudian psychoanalysis with a feminist insight. She states that gender is not biological but a social product which is perpetuated by society. The father-absent, mother-involved “nuclear family” unit enables a continuing track of patriarchy and champions the denigration of women. Kahn explains that women who are mothers raise daughters who have mothering capabilities and the desire to be mothers themselves, which is produced from the mother-daughter relationship.

Because children become aware of subjectivity through the mother (a woman), women are couched in the by-product of ambivalence of fear and desire. In fact, because a child’s first carnal action takes place with the body of a woman, the feminine figure is perceived as the pentacle of beauty and bliss. A child’s love for its mother is deep, and the child does not originally differentiate between itself and its mother: to the child, they are one. It is important at some point, though, for the child to realize its autonomy and reorient its sense of self away from the mother. The father, on the other hand, is perceived as a separate being from the beginning, thus love and hate for him (including the Oedipus complex) coincide with the reality principle. Through the relationship (identification and social ascription) with its mother, a child realizes its gender well before the Oedipus complex takes effect. Kahn’s thoughts concerning the Oedipus complex differ from Freud’s, for she states a boy’s Oedipal love is not his longing to take the father’s place, but rather it is directly related to his infantile love and the “oneness of self” he experiences with his mother at a young age. Also, because a mother is of the same gender as her daughter, she will treat the daughter differently than she treats her son. Mothers tend to treat their daughters as extensions of themselves, thus creating a deeper identification with their daughters than with their sons. In fact, girls continue to identify with their mothers throughout adolescence, and they gain their sense of “femaleness” from this identification, not from an Oedipus complex.

Differing from Freud, Kahn explains penis envy by stating that girls (like boys) begin life psychically merged with the mother, but because girls are more similar to their mothers than boys, they are more attached to the mother. Therefore, when they wish to separate themselves from the mother and become more independent, they wish to be like their more detached male counterparts. This longing for a penis, then, is more a longing for independence (a more detached freedom) than actual want of a phallus. In concordance with the girl’s attachment and psychical merger to her mother, Kahn also mentions the development of the female superego: women have empathy instilled in them because a girl’s identification with her mother lasts for a longer period than her male counterpart, she feels less differentiated from, and more “in touch” with, the external object world than a boy. Thus, men are more detached, and women are more empathetic.

Work Cited
Kahn, Coppelia. "The Hand That Rocks the Cradle." 1985. Literary Theory: An Anthology, 2nd Ed.
Eds. Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004. 826 - 837.

Posted by: Travis R at April 15, 2009 09:50 AM

Jessica P.
Dr. Hobbs
ENG 435
4/15/07

Précis of The Madwoman in the Attic

Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar wrote a book, The Madwoman in the Attic, which was the first to identify the role of women in the literary community. Essentially, the book claims that women cannot become writers until they find models in previous literature to model after. The selection from this book that Rivkin and Ryan chose to include in this anthology focuses on the idea that even positively portrayed women in literature are expressed negatively by male writers.

Gilbert and Gubar claim that before women can write they must consider the images of angel and monster which male writers have created and bestowed upon women. Specifically, for feminist critics, killing these negative identities is the beginning of understanding novels. The first example used is a passage from Elizabeth Barrett Browning Aurora Leigh. Readers can identify that what Aurora sees in her dead Mother’s picture is the figure of a ghost, friend, angel, fairy, witch, and spirit. Thus, Gilbert and Gubar interpret this as an implication of Aurora’s belief that she is fated to inhabit male defined masks as her mother did, without realizing that they already have influenced her, altering her perception of life.

One can trace through history the different identities that men have placed upon women. In the middle Ages, the Virgin Mary represented the ideal purity figure while in secular 19th century the domestic angel was the role that women should model after. Further, Gilbert and Gubar identified different feminine characters throughout literature that show men’s dominant influence and women’s negative portrayal. For example in Wilhelm’s Meister’s Travels, the female character has no story or her own but selflessly gives of herself to others.

After studying literature, Gilbert and Gubart found that the women characters portrayed as angels can also be identified as pursued by death. Dicken’s featured a dead/alive Florence Dombey and Louisa May Alcott created a dying Beth March. Thus, the object of the angel woman is the selfless surrender of herself, which ultimately dooms her to death and heaven.

Also, the idea that the female monster is concealed within the angel is another identity used to portray women. Although most 18th century literature limited this depiction, there were still some important works that contained the female monster. The selection concluded with an explanation of Simone de Beauvoirs thesis that woman has been made to represent all man’s negative feelings about his inability to control his own existence.


Works Cited
Gilbert, Sandra, Gubar, Susan. “The Madwoman in the Attic”. 1980. Literary Theory: An Anthology. 2nd ed. Ed. Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004. 812-825.

Posted by: Jessica Pall at April 15, 2009 10:19 AM

Wesley Johnson
Hobbs
Eng 435
April 15, 2009
Dorothy as the Subordinated Woman
Victor Fleming’s film adaptation of The Wizard of Oz provides a bizarre lens through which to view feminist critiques. Throughout the film, women are the subject of much scrutiny and stereotyping. Luce Irigaray’s article “The Power of Discourse and the Subordination of the feminine” illuminates the notions that women are inferior to men because they simply attempt to mimic men. Furthermore, she notes that because language is a masculine construct (they are wielding the power to create it), women are thought of as only mimics of men when they engage in discourse. Obviously, examining The Wizard of Oz through Irigaray’s article provides difficulty in that language is not the central means by which women are subordinate. Instead, the notion that women mimic men is evoked multiple times in Oz through the various attempts by characters to masculize or feminize the women in the film.
The Witches of Oz provide good fodder for this. On one hand, Glenda is the wholesome, good witch. She wears white and exists as a figure of purity. She is calm and careful and precise in word and thought. She even provides the method by which Dorothy escapes home. The bad witch however is disturbingly frightening. She is loud and her cackles can shake even the most steadfast of tin-men.
However, when compared to the pilgrims of Dorothy Gale, the Wicked Witch is not much different. All she wants is a pair of heirloomed slippers left by her sister who was crushed to death by Dorothy’s house. So, like those who desire a brain, heart, courage, and to go home, the Wicked Witch just wants some familial shoes.
Irigary’s article becomes significant in this discussion when we look at what makes the Wicked Witch so frightening. Obviously, it is not a jump to note that her qualities are masculine. Violence is typically ascribed to men. The trees (whose voices are clearly men) are violent in their language and actions. Likewise the guards of the Witch are all men. So in her violence, the Wicked Witch is actually only mimicking male qualities. If she acted more womanly, she’d just be a green Glenda.
The importance of examining the subordination of the Wicked Witch in this manner comes from the reaction of the viewer of Oz. If one notes the subordination going on here, then one might recognize how this type of subjugation occurs in real life. Conversely, if one doesn’t note it, the stratified notion of female to male subjugation may survive unmoved and unnoticed. For feminism, this is a mistake of the utmost impact.


Works Cited
Irigaray, Luce “The Power of Discourse and the Subordination of the feminine.”1977 Literary Theory: An Anthology. 2nd Ed. Ed. Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004. 795-798.
The Wizard of Oz. Dir. Victor Fleming. Perf. Judy Garland. MGM, 1939.

Posted by: Wesley J at April 19, 2009 09:13 PM

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